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now, some of them died for love.

the Head of the Academy of Sciences in Gallia was Gautsky. he gained fame for the discovery of the complex numbers. but some say he usurped results first established by deMovere who introduced the polar representation of complex numbers, an idea that led to harmonic analysis and group theory. anyway, it is certain that Gautsky introduced the concept of analyticity and was the first to rigorously resolve the convergence of infinite series of complex numbers. his work set the foundation for the development of classical analysis. but Gautsky, a learned analyst, and a great innovator in his youth, by the time he was fifty he was blind to newer developments, that bore the mark of genius on them.
in particular. in the School of the Academy, a young man was admitted at the age of sixteen. his name was Kahlua. he wrote three papers on what we now call group theory, a field that at that time and for many decades to come, was literally nonexistent. Kahlua handed his three papers to Gautsky who read them perfunctorily, did not understand them and scolded Kahlua for wasting his time. Kahlua, at the age of eighteen got involved in an affair with a prostitu- te and was challenged to a duel by a man much more learned than he the martial arts. knowing that he was about to die, he spent his last night writing a semi- nal paper on the field he had discovered and next morning he handed it to Gautsky, went to the field of honor and got killed.
Gautsky would have forgotten all about the paper, had he not been pestered by his rival deMovere for nineteen years. even though in the beginning he staunchly refused to present the paper to the Academy, eventually deMovere embarassed him to the point that he had no other choice. the paper was half heartedly prese- nted to the members of the Academy, who understood nothing, an the matter was forgotten for fifty five years. but the important fact was that it was publi- shed in the Archivesof the Academy.
after the prescribed fiftyfive years elapsed, a middle aged mathematician from Nordweg, named Babel, who at the time was on a sabbatical trip to Parigio, happened to come across the volume of the Archives that contained Kahlua's paper and read it. he immeditaely picked the thread up and decided to pursue the matter and develop his own ideas.
Babel was no mathematical celebrity. he was the type of mathematician that would roam from Court to Court, tutoring the children of the local nobles and performing mathematical tricks for the amusement of the lords and their concu- bines. as soon as he saw Kahlua's work he was so taken, that he gave up every- thing to stay in Parigio , the only place where he could have access to Kahlua' s work. he spent six years there, reading about groups and discoursing with the decrepit deMovere, who at the age of one hundred and three was the eldest mathematician ever. Babel's economics were very poor though and he had to live in cold, damp attics. his health was ruined. eventually he decided to give up and started pursuing a position in some nobleman's court. however, he had to wait another three years for the position to materialize, during which time, his health was rapidly declining. he was however working on groups all the time, and, due to his connection to deMovere, whose name was still extre- mely respected, his work was published. so there is a corpus of sixty seven papers on groups by Babel, which formed the basis for the work of modern researchers. however, Babel's work, just like Kahlua's was decades ahead of its time and his contemporaries pid no attention to him. this only increased the difficulty of securing the desired position. in the last year of his stay in Parigio, Babel, with tuberculosis eating his lungs away, had come to the point of cursing Kahlua and his work. finally, the Viscount of Narimandia offered him a steady, well paid position in his court, in December of ...., on the condi- tion he should report within three days. the distance between Parigio and Narimandia is one hundred and twenty one parasanghi. Babel, bedridden with a heavy cold, wasted no time: he jumped on a mule and set off, riding night and day . on his way he was caught in a snow storm, developed pneumonia and died within one week after his punctual arrival to the Viscount's Court.
in many of his communications with deMovere, Babel had tried to establish what deMovere's motive was in pushing Gautsky to disclose Kahlua's paper. deMovere did not understand the papers any better than Gautsky or any of their colleagues. with a devilish grin crossing his shrunk face, deMovere would always give the same reply: he wanted to see the puzzled expression on the faces of the "old assholes", as he described his colleagues. but this was hardly a credible explanation. the Academy of the Sciences of Gallia was hardly the place where a public humiliation of these wise gentlemen would be of any importa- nce. after all, in the very same halls the famous laGirango, Creator of the Celestial Mechanics , stopped in the middle of one of his paper deliveries saying: "no, i have to think more on this topic".
a better explanation would have to take into account the geopolitics of the time. the Kingdom of Gallia was neighbouring in the North to a loose federation of Totonian states, each of them ruled by a petty monarch. their power was small because of the fragmenation and lack of a central authority. but the only way to unite these states, all consisting of racially related groupuscles, was by first bringing about a cultural unifcation, not on the levelof the peoples, but among the intellectuals. in general, the Totonian intelectualls were drawn to Gallia and the glamorous life of Parigio, which was the intellectual center of the world ( at the time ). but, some enlightened Totonian monarchs decided to take action and started granting generous sums for the development of mathema- tical centers. the two great Totonian mathematicians, Gosso and Oilari, were men of these restless times, and in a short period managed to produce mathematical work of incredible beauty, importance and attractiveness. the young Totonians with a bend for mathematics would flock to their centers, Gosso's in Kenixverge and Oilari's in Goodin. the result was that the intellectual, and consequently political prestige of Gallia was tarnished.
deMovere was a shrewd politician, in the confidence of the King of Gallia, to whom he often offered advice. so he realized the need for a rejuvenation of the Gallian mathematics . however there were few good mathematicians in Gallia at the time. obviously, the young Kahlua was one of them, as his performance in every branch of conventional mathematics testified. however, conventional mathematics was not what Gallia needed, as deMovere reasoned. Gallia needed modern mathematics and modern mathematicians. hopefully Kahlua was one of them. the morning of Kahlua's demise, a group of the King's personal guards wer racing to save him from the sword of his opponent. the leader of the group, a certain Darta Nano, from the province of Gascone, felled the man who had killed Kahlua. but obviously he was too late: Kahlua's young and tender body was lying on the ground, his heart pierced and his blood dripping on the fresh spring grass.
this was a great loss to Gallia, but if at least Kahlua's papers could be salvaged? deMovere tried to leverage Gautsky into this, nut he had to work hard for nineteen years. that deMovere with all of the State and the Royal
establishment behind him could not force Gautsky was evidence of the indepen- dence of the Gallian Universities. in fact the Gallian Universities could start revolutions: vid. 1791, 1830, 1848 and 1968.
the professors, who could commandeer the services of a tremendously dedicated student body, wielded political power was to be respected. in fact, during the nineteen years that Gautsky refused to present Kahlua's paper, he took active part in the two revolutions of 1830 and 1848, that almosst destroyed the regime. finally, the accusation that Gautsky, himself of Totonian origin, was actively sabotaging the Gallian intellectual establishment, became believable enough to the newer generation of revolutionaries in the Academy, who were anyway seeking for a scapegoat to accuse for the failure of the 1848 revolt. the old Gautsky was the perfect scapegoat, and he was forced to deliver Kahlu- a's paper to refute the accusations. in this respect, his attempt failed: he was finally accused openly, condemned and excommunicated in 1851.
the role of the Gallian intellectuals is very interesting as compared to that of their Angolesian counterparts across the Canale Straits. the major universities there, Bosporus and Cambiria, and the counterpart of the Academy of Gallia, the Royal Society, were staunchly conservative in their political views. on the other hand they were libertine in their social mores. this is even more striking if we consider the fact that Angolesia is a morally extreme- ly conservative country. in particular, sodomy is totally unacceptable. yet, in Bosporus and Cambiria, where the men to women ratio was well above fifteen to one, for the old lechers the only way out was sodomy, a habit which most of the young students had already developed in the public school system from which they originated.
an example of two distinguished homosexuals in Cambiria, were Harry and Litelwo Harry was by thiry years the senior of Litelwo. when Litelwo came to Cambiria, he was dazzled by Harry, the mathematical wizard. the two of them collaborated closely in every single paper they wrote for the next thirteen years, and Litelwo proved to be Harry's equal as a mathematician. in fact, Harry would o- penly declare that the only reason he quit his predatory ( on young male undergraduates ) sexual habits and settled down for a steady liaison with Litelwo, was that Litelwo was his intellectual equal. however, their affair was also characterized by wild sex and plenty of common athletic activities, as they both were outstanding athletes. it was a great blow for both of them, when, at the age of sixty three, Harry, the sturdy old man who woke up at six o' clock every morning to bathe in the cold waters of the Cam river, fell down from a steep rock cliff while mountain hiking in the Pennines. the site of the event being thirty parasangi from the closest village, Litelwo took Harry on his back and ran all the way back. Harry was saved but paralyzed from the neck down for the rest of his life, for which he was bitterly resentful of Litelwo 's saving him. the resulting tension made Litelwo break the relationship up and go away and Harry spent the next seven years totally alone, confined in a wheelchair. his first two attempts at suicide by withholding his breath failed, but finally, at age seventy he succeeded to end his life by a long hunger strike. Litelwo on the other hand lived to be ninety three, publishing until the day of his death, and, more remarkably, never mentioning Harry's name again. engaging in this tactique, entailed his never referring to their older joint papers in his later research.
much as Harry's hunger strike was admired in Cambiria, nobody would have thought of using such means to promote political ends, much less to do as the Gallian mathematicians did: go down in the streets with red flags and kill for the freedom of the masses. in fact, an interesting event is worth reciting: fifty years before Harry's instatement as a professor in Cambiria, the famed Nootoni had died. now Nootoni was a truly remarkable man. he was one of the two inventors of the Calculus, the other one being the aggressive Totonian Liponiz. Liponiz tried to keep all the credit for himself, again with the explicit purpose of glorifying Totonian mathematics ( much like Goss and Oilari ). unfortuantely for Nootoni, at the time, the Angolesian government was allied to the Totonian Federation and Her Majesty's Government ordered their subject to not dispute with Liponiz. apparently, Her Majesty's Government did not prize mathematics as much as the necessity of keeping Gallia busy worrying about the Totonians, so as to keep off Angolesis'a back, and leave the Angolesians with a free hand in their struggle against the Sapanardi, overthe transatlantic dominions. well, Nootoni knew his duty and did not complain. he acquiesced and gave up his claims for the calculus, even though he was a much better mathematician than Liponiz, a great physicist and the most intelligent man on erath at the time ( but there was a woman, a sorceress and prostitute that was more intelligent than Nootoni ). so Nootoni did not complain, but he felt so bitter about the whole affair that he gave up Mathematics and Science and took up Theology. for the next thirty years he wrote nothing on mathematics , but instead thought abouth the human soul. however, his chair of mathematics in Cambbiria was nevr taken away from him, because he was so widely worshipped by his colleagues. this chair was endowed by the income of the transatlantic dominions, exactly the same ones that the Sapanardi were trying to take away. the dominions were saved by the great buccaneer Franciscus Dracus, a paramour of the Angolesian Queen Lesbita.this Dracus was a brilliant man, also going under the names Billy Sakespiro and Franco Bacchone. he wrote philosophical works under the first name and theatrical under the second. but his greatest contribution in the glory of Angolesia was the saving of the Transatlantic Dominions which were soon to become an independent state under the name Oosha. so Nootoni's chair was funded by Dracus' exploits and after Nootoni's death, a successor should be appointed. the dean of Cambiria traveled to Lodino, where the best fortune tellers resided, fasted for a week and walked barefoot to the Museo Biritisco, where the witches lair was located. they advised him to take the first man he would meet after he exited the room of the oracles. the place was not only the lair of the witches, but also the best, biggest and most com- prehensive library in the world. so lots of scholars were spending their days there researching abstruse topics. as the dean of Cambiria walked out, he bumped into a young scholar with long wavy hair, like the mane of a lion, and a huge Biblical beard. the dean implored him to join Cambiria as the successor of Nootoni, but the youth replied that he was busy creating a new religion and did not want to divide his efforts. the young man was Karlo Maraxi.
Nootoni's chair remained open, and that was the last chance of Cambiria to deal with political animals for ninety years. only forty years after Harry's death, a man who combined political consciousness and intellectual promiscuity showed up in Cambiria. this man was Beritan Rossler. he started his career by attempting to write a treatise that explained all of life, religion and philo- sophy in mathematical terms. the book Principia Mathematica appeared after twenty three years of labor and enjoyed an enormous popularity for a short time, as the Cambiria scholars thought it answered All The Questions. but two years later another Cambiria professor, a foreigner under the name Vico Vitken prepa- red HIS Book, called Tractatus LogicoPhilosophicus, in which he exposed a fundamental logical fallacy in the fundamental assumptions that Roosler used in his treatment of the universe. Also, their differences were stri- king: Rossler's book took twenty three years to write; Vitken wrote his over- night, during an LSD trip. Rossler's book was an unwieldy mass of three thou- sand plus pages; Vitken's was a mere sixty pages. and the answers were better, clearer, more concise. in fact, the book Tractaus is the best book ever written as Rossler himself humbly admitted and as time has borne out. so Rossler, a pure man, offered to translate Vitken's book and wrote a preface to it. Vitken, a tactful, shy but demnding intellectual answered in a short , terse letter, the essence of which was that Rossler , as his preface made clear, did not understand a word of the book, just like the rest of the world. then, Vitken underwent a psychical experience that made him renounce his books and not write ( not only not publish, but not even write ) a line for the rest of his life. however he continued teaching in Cambiria and was generally acknowledged as the leading authority in metaphysical questions. only the last day of his life, when he knew he was dying, did he write again, and produced a set of hastily written notes that display his great knowledge.
in the meantime, Rossler could not withstand the triple blow of his book's demi se, his rejection by Vitken and Vitken's spiritual rebirth. si Rossler, a con- servative nobleman, took to politics, turned pacifist and radical and attempted dto save the common man. during the first big war he refused to fight, he was thrown in jail and his position in Cambiria was greatly weakened.
in the meantime, two important events were taking place. the first was the rise of Totonian mathematics to the status of being the best mathematical theo- ry in the world. this gave great pride to the Totonians, however they had to deal with an unpleasant fact: the majority of distinguished mathematicians in the Totonian regions ( now contained in the recently created Giriman state ) were not Totonians. instead they belonged to a culturally, racially and econo- mically distinct group, the Jahudi , who were intensely hated by the Totonians. the influence of the Jahudi in the edifice of Totonian mathematics can be seen by the following fact: as we all know the base of all mathematics is set theory and the base of set theory is the concept of cardinality. the standard letter in mathematics for the first infinite cardinality is aleph, a jahudi letter introduced by the Totonian-Jahudi mathematician Kinator.
this was the first event, that proved so unbearable to the Totonians that they initiated terrible pogroms against the Jahudi, imprisoning them in concentration camps and putting them to death by poison gasses or using them as human guinea pigs. it is estimated that about six million Jahudi,that is, seventy percent of their total population were killed this way. however, the re- maining thrirty percent fled to other countries and mainly to Oosha, which was the new and rising world economic power. in the meantime Giriman, the greatest military power at the time, declared war on the world, with two basic objecti- ves: first to destroy the Jahudi and restore the integrity of Totonian mathema- tics and second to destroy the state Ruess, which was the seat of the only re- gime on erath governed according to Maraxi's principles. ( remember that Maraxi was the son of a converted Jahudi family. ) this was the second event.
at the time of this war, the second big war, there were two great minds in the world. the first was a Jahudi physicist who created a theory according to which matter could be turned to energy at a very favourable ratio. the result was that very much energy was available for the creation of weapons that could cause unimaginable destruction. The silver haired old man wept with joy as he visualized all the destruction he could heap upon the hated Totonians, that had well near destroyed his race. As he was scribbling the final equations that sealed the validity of his theory irrevocably, he had a vision: he saw in front of him a luminous mushroom that was slowly swelling with the sigh of myriad souls escaping the breasts that held them.
the other great mind, was a mathematician, the greatest of them all. he could speak ten languages. he got his Ph.D. at the age of eighteen. he worked in every existing field of mathematics of his time and created on his own some new. he worked on quantum mechanics, operator theory, calculus of variations, differential equations, topology, logic, group theory. he created computer science, automata theory, game theory. this man, an agnostic Jahudi, was married to two women, had several mistresses, gambled, drank, raced cars. his name, by the way, is N.
so N. created computer science and the computers. this in turn made it possible that mind boggling computations were performed, that would dull the powers of ten of the greatest mathematicians. but the sacred beast, the machine that N. conceived, designed and implemented, performed these calculations in a fraction of a second; and then destroyed its own circuitry, so as not to witness the de- struction that these computations would cause. But a very powerful weapon was designed, and its use against the Totonians was carefully planned. How great was the disappointment of the power wielding ma- thematicians, soldiers and orators when the Tootonians lost the war before they could tatste the destructive power of three great brains concentrated in a pure theory!
N. however advocated the use of theweapon anyway, against any possible enemy. the most likely target seemed to be the Ruess hegemony, the ally in the war against the Tootonians, but also the powerful perpetrator of the Maraxi theory. N. went at work with incredible energy, inventing novel forms of aggressive mathematics, that astounded everybody.
however, N. died of bone cancer, caused by his exposure and heavy involvement with the very powerful weapon he helped create. Some people believe that the concentrated psychic power of the souls of the dead people, people crushed during preliminary tests of the murderous agent, this concentrated power, was directed at the man N. and seeped into the marrow of his bones, creating inflamations and tumors that finally led to his death.

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ÌåôÜ ôï ðñùéíü îýðíçìá îåêéíïýìå ìå åëá÷éóôïðïéçìÝíåò ìíÞìåò ôïõ ìÝëëïíôïò (üóåò äåí Ý÷åé êáôáöÝñåé íá áîáëåßøåé ôåëåßùò ï ýðíïò - ðåñéóóüôåñá ðÜíù ó’ áõôü áñãüôåñá). Ïé ìíÞìåò áõôÝò áðïôåëïýí ìÝñïò ôçò áßóèçóÞò ìáò êáôÜ ôç äéÜñêåéá áõôÞ (üðùò êáé êÜèå ÷ñïíéêü äéÜóôçìá).
Ìå ôçí åîÝëéîç ôçò çìÝñáò áõîÜíåôáé óõóóùñåõôéêÞ ç óõíåßäçóç.[1] ÁõîÜíåôáé Ýôóé ôï ðïóïóôü ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ ðïõ ôï Üôïìï êáôáíáëþíåé åíÝñãåéá óå áõôü-ðáñáôÞñçóç. Óõóóùññåýåôáé åðßãíùóç ôïõ óõíáéóèÞìáôïò êáé ðõñïäïôåßôáé óåéñÜ óõíåéñìþí óôï óõíåéäçôü: Ç ÓêÝøç.
Ç óêÝøç åßíáé üìùò óõíåßäçóç. Ìå ôçí åîÝëéîÞ ôçò, ðñïêáëåß íÝåò áéóèÞóåéò êáé, óõíåðþò, íÝá óõíáéóèÞìáôá. Ç äéáãñáöüìåíç ôÜóç êõñéáñ÷ßáò ôçò óêÝøçò åìöáíßæåôáé íá ðñïêáëåß êáé íá óõíôçñåß, óõ÷íÜ åíôåßíïíôïò, ôï åýñïò ôïõ óõíåéäçóéáêïý öÜóìáôïò. ÄçëáäÞ ôçò óõíÜñôçóçò ðïõ êáèïñßæåé ðïéü õðïóýíïëï ôùí áéóèáíèåéóþí äéáôáñá÷þí ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò èá áðáó÷ïëÞóåé ôçí óõíåßäçóç.
Ç óõíÜñôçóç ìåôáöïñÜò Ýìöáíßæåé ëïéðüí ôï öáéíüìåíï ôçò óõíôÞñçóçò, êáé óõ÷íÜ åðáýîçóçò, ôïõ ðïóïóôïý ôçò åíÝñãåéáò ðïõ áíáëþíåôáé óôç óõíåßäçóç.  Ç äå åíÝñãåéá óõíåßäçóçò åßíáé ôï ìÝãåèïò ôçò åîüäïõ ôïõ óõóôÞìáôïò (observable).
Ç ðñïäéÜèåóç ðïõ Ý÷åé ôï Üôïìï áðÝíáíôé óôá åñåèßóìáôá ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò åßíáé óõíÜñôçóç ôçò óõãêéíçóéáêÞò ôïõ ìíÞìçò áðÝíáíôé óôï åñÝèéóìá ðïõ åêäçëþíåôáé áíôáíáêëáóôéêÜ.

[1]Óõíåßäçóç åßíáé ç ðáñáêïëïýèçóç ôïõ åáõôïý. Áðïôåëåß áðüðåéñá ôïõ åáõôïý íá ðáñáêïëïõèÞóåé ôïí åáõôü. Óôçí ðñáãìáôéêüôçôá èÝëåé íá ôïí ìåôñÞóåé, äçëáäÞ íá ôïí íïÞóåé ùò êÜðïéï ìåôñÞóéìï ìÝãåèïò óå ìßá êáôáíïïýìåíç äéÜóôáóç. Óõíåßäçóç åßíáé ëïéðüí ôìÞìá ôçò áíôßäñáóçò ôïõ üëïõ óõóôÞìáôïò ðïõ áíáëþíåôáé óôçí áõôïìÝôñçóç êáé äåí åðçñåÜæåôáé ìüíïí ðåäéáêÜ áðü ôï óýóôçìá.========================================================

Åóôßáóç ôçò Áßóèçóçò

Áò ðÜñïõìå ìßá áßóèçóç, áõôÞ ôçò üñáóçò. Åßíáé ãíùóôü üôé ç üñáóÞ ìáò, ùò áéóèçôéêÞ ëåéôïõñãßá, åðéäåéêíýåé ìßá ÷ñïíïìåôáâëçôÞ ðáñÜìåôñï, ôçí åóôßáóç. Åßíáé åðßóçò ãíùóôü üôé õðÜñ÷åé ç åóôéáêÞ êáé ç ðåñéöåñåéáêÞ üñáóç, ïé ïðïßåò ãßíïíôáé ãíùóôéêÜ áíôéëçðôÝò ìå ôåëåßùò äéáöïñåôéêÝò åéêüíåò.
Ôï öáéíüìåíï áõôü êáôáäåéêíýåé åìöáôéêÜ ôï ñüëï ôüóï ôçò óõíåéäçôÞò âïýëçóçò üóï êáé ôïõ óõíáéóèÞìáôïò óôçí ñýèìéóç ôçò êÜèå áßóèçóçò ùò ðñïò ôçí åóôßáóÞ ôçò óå ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ÷ùñï÷ñüíïõ.
Ï ÷þñïò ãßíåôáé áíôéëçðôüò óôï ðáñüí åíþ ï ÷ñüíïò ïñßæåé ôï ðáñåëèüí êáé ôï ìÝëëïí.
Ç åóôßáóç ôçò áßóèçóçò (áíåîáñôÞôùò ãåíåóéïõñãïý ëåéôïõñãßáò) áíáëýåôáé ùò åóôßáóç óå ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ÷þñïõ êáé ùò åóôßáóç óå ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ.
Ç åóôßáóç óå ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ÷þñïõ åßíáé ç áßóèçóç.
Ç åóôßáóç óå ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ åßíáé ôï óõíáßóèçìá.
Ç âïýëçóç áðïôåëåß ìÝñïò ôïõ óõíáéóèÞìáôïò áíôéëçðôü áðü ôï óõíåéäçôü. ÕðÜñ÷ïõí êáé Üëëá ìÝñç ôïõ óõíáéóèÞìáôïò áíôéëçðôÜ áðü ôï óõíåéäçôü üðùò ç Ýëîç/áðþèçóç, ï öüâïò/èõìüò, ï åíèïõóéáóìüò/çäïíÞ. More on these later.
Ìå ôï ìïíôÝëï áõôü ìðïñïýí íá ðáñáóôáèïýí ôá ðáñáêÜôù ðáñáäåßãìáôá:
ÁðïêïðÞ ôùí áéóèÞóåùí
Ç áðïêïðÞ ôùí áéóèÞóåùí, ùò ìç ôåëéêü óôÜäéï ôçò åðßôåõîçò ôçò õðåñóõíåßäçóçò, åßíáé ç ðáíôåëÞò åóôßáóç óôï ÷ñüíï, ìå åëá÷éóôïðïßçóç ôçò åóôßáóçò óôï ÷þñï. Ìðïñïýìå íá ôï öáíôáóôïýìå áõôü óáí ìßá áóõìôðùôéêÜ êùíïåéäçÞ åðéöÜíåéá ç ïðïßá åßôå åóôéÜæåôáé õðåñâïëéêÜ (ìå õøçëÞ Ýíôáóç) óå ìéêñÞ ðåñéï÷Þ åßôå åîáðëþíåôáé (ìå ÷áìçëÞ Ýíôáóç) óå ìåãáëýôåñç ðåñéï÷Þ. Åßíáé ôï ÄÅ.
ÊáôÜ ôçí áðïêïðÞ ôùí áéóèÞóåùí, ç üëç áõôÞ êùíïåéäÞò êáìðýëç åêöõëßæåôáé áóõìðôùôéêÜ óôï ìçäåíéêü åðßðåäï, ìåéþíïíôáò óõíå÷þò ôï ïëïêëÞñùìá ôçò êáìðýëçò åóôßáóçò.
ÊáôÜ ôçí áðïêïðÞ ôùí åéäéêþí áéóèÞóåùí åßíáé äõíáôüí íá ëåéôïõñãïýí ïé åóùôåñéêÝò áéóèÞóåéò, äçëáäÞ ïé áíôéëÞøåéò áðü ôï óõíåéäçôü ôùí åãåéñüìåíùí ìíçìþí. Ïé ìíÞìåò, ùò ôÝôïéåò ðåñéëáìâÜíïõí ôïí ÷ñüíï. ÊáôÜ ôçí áðïêïðÞ ôùí áéóèÞóåùí, ôï Üôïìï óõíåéäçôïðïéåß ðëÝïí ìüíïí ìíÞìåò, ìå óõíåéñìü áðüëýôá áíåîÜñôçôï áðü ôï ðåñéâÜëëïí. Áõôü ôáõôßæåôáé ìå ìßá áóõìðôùôéêÞ (óõíÜñôçóç äÝëôá) åóôßáóç óôï Üôïìï/åßíáé/åãþ/õðåñåãþ/êÝíôñï íïçôéêïý âÜñïõò/êÝíôñï ëåéôïõñãéêïý âÜñïõò.
Óôï óçìåßï áõôü Ý÷ïõìå ðñïóåããßóåé ôçí õðåñóõíåßäçóç ùò ðñïò ôçí áðüëõôç åóôßáóç ùò ðñïò ôï ÷þñï. Ôï Üôïìï åóôéÜæåôáé óå Ýíá ìüíï óçìåßï, ôïí Åáõôü ôïõ, áëëÜ áêüìç äåí Ý÷åé êÜíåé êÜôé ãéá ôçí åóôßáóÞ ôïõ ùò ðñïò ôïí ÷ñüíï.
Ï Áðüëõôïò Äéáëïãéóìüò
Ç åóôßáóç áõôÞ åßíáé ôï åðüìåíï óôÜäéï, áõôü ôïõ áðüëõôïõ äéáëïãéóìïý. Ôï Üôïìï äåí äéáóðÜôáé áðü ôéò äéáôáñá÷Ýò ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò êáé áöïóéþíåôáé óå ìßá áäéÜëåéðôç áõôïðáñáôÞñçóç. ÁõôÞ ç áõôïðáñáôÞñçóç Ý÷åé óôïé÷åßá áíáæÞôçóçò. Ìðïñåß íá ÷áñáêôçñéóôåß  ùò Ýíáò ìç÷áíéóìüò áíáæÞôçóçò, ï ïðïßïò óôçí ðáñïýóá óôéãìÞ äåí äÝ÷åôáé äéáôÜñáîç ôïõ åéñìïý ôïõ áðü åñåèßóìáôá ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò.
ÄÝ÷åôáé üìùò äéáôÜñáîç áðü ôçí Ýôé ðáñáìÝíïõóá åóôßáóç óôïí ÷ñüíï. Ç åóôßáóç áõôÞ åßíáé ìßá ðåñéðëÜíçóç, üðùò êáé ôï áãíÜíôåìá, ôçò êáìýëçò åóôßáóçò. Ùò ôÝôïéá, åêäçëþíåôáé ìå ìíÞìåò óõìâÜíôùí ôïðïèåôçìÝíùí ùò ðñïò ôïí ÷ñüíï.
Ï áðüëõôïò äéáëïãéóìüò åßíáé ôï óôÜäéï áõôü ôçò áíáæÞôçóçò ôçò ìçäåíéêÞò åóôßáóçò ùò ðñïò ôïí ÷ñüíï. Ðùò èá ãßíåé áõôü? Ìå ôçí áðüëõôç åóôßáóç óå ìßá ÷ñïíéêÞ óôéãìÞ ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ. Áðüëõôç åóôßáóç óçìáßíåé üôé äåí õðÜñ÷åé ðëÝïí áíôéðáñáâïëÞ äéáöïñåôéêþí óôéãìþí êáé äåí ðñïêáëåßôáé óõíáßóèçìá ôçò ñïÞò ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ.
Ùò óôÜäéï ðñïåôïéìáóßáò ôçò åðßôåõîçò ôçò õðåñóõíåßäçóçò, ï áðüëõôïò äéáëïãéóìüò óçìáßíåé óôçí ðïñåßá ðñïò ôçí åóôßáóç áõôÞ.
Ç Õðåñóõíåßäçóç
ÕðÜñ÷åé ðëÝïí áðüëõôç åóôßáóç óôïí ÷þñï êáé ôï ÷ñüíï. Å÷åé äçëáäÞ óôáìáôÞóåé ç ðåñéðëÜíçóç êáé Ý÷ïõí äçìéïõñãçèåß äýï êáìðýëåò, äÝëôá êáé ïé äýï. Å÷åé êáôáñãçèåß ç áíÜêëçóç ìíçìþí êáé Ý÷åé êáôáñãçèåß ç ìÝôñçóç Üëëùí óôïé÷åßùí ôïõ ÷þñïõ ðÝñáí ôïõ Åáõôïý. Ç êáôÜóôáóç áõôÞ ëÝãåôáé õðåñóõíåßäçóç ãéáôß åðéôõã÷Üíåé óôïí õðåñèåôéêü âáèìü ôçí êáôáíüçóç ôïõ ðáñüíôïò êáé ôïõ åäþ.
Ç ñïÞ ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ åßíáé ðëÝïí ìÞ áéóèçôÞ êáé ÷ùñßò óõíáßóèçìá. Ôáõôü÷ñïíá, ç óõíåßäçóç áðáó÷ïëÝßôáé ðëÝïí ìüíï áðü ôï åäþ êáé ôï ôþñá. Êáôáñãïýíôáé  ï ÷þñïò êáé ï ÷ñüíïò ãéáôß êáôáñãåßôáé ç áíáæÞôçóç óå áõôïýò.

Óå ìßá åêäçëïýìåíç óôï óõíåéäçôü ìíÞìç, ðñïêáëåßôáé ìßá Ýëîç Þ áðþèçóç. Ï âáèìüò Ýëîçò Þ áðþèçóçò åßíáé óõíÜñôçóç ôùí ðáñáêÜôù ðñáãìÜôùí:
·      ÓõíïëéêÞ ÐñïäéÜèåóç. Ôï øõ÷üóùìá íéþèåé óõíïëéêÜ óå ìåéïíåêôéêÞ êáôÜóôáóç êáé ôåßíåé ìßá åêäÞëùóç ìíÞìçò íá ôçí óõíäÝóåé ìå áðþèçóç. ¹ ôï áíôßèåôï, äçëáäÞ áßóèçóç éó÷ýïò íá áõîÜíåé ôïí åíèïõóéáóìü. ÃåíéêÜ, ç ðñïäéÜèåóç åìöáíßæåé êýêëïõò, áí êáé ü÷é ðåñéïäéêïýò.   
·      ÌÜèçóç. Åí ðñïêåéìÝíù, ùò ìÜèçóç ïñßæù ôï óýíïëï ìíçìþí ðïõ Ý÷åé ôï øõ÷üóùìá áðü ðáëáéüôåñåò åêäçëþóåéò ôçò éäßáò ìíÞìçò. Ìå Üëëá ëüãéá ôï óýíïëï ôùí ãíùóôéêþí åìðåéñéþí ðïõ ó÷åôßæïíôáé ìå ôçí áíáãùãÞ óôï óõíåéäçôü ôïõ ðñùôïãåíïýò åñåèßóìáôïò ðïõ áðïìíçìïíåýèçêå
ÄçëáäÞ, ç ìÜèçóç äåí ïñßæåôáé óôçí áðüêôçóç ôçò åìðåéñßáò êáèåáõôÞ, áíôéèÝôùò ïñßæåôáé óôçí ðåñáéôÝñù óõãêéíçóéáêÞ åðåîåñãáóßá ðïõ äçìéïõñãåßôáé áðü áíáêëÞóåéò ìíÞìçò ôïõ áñ÷éêïý óõìâÜíôïò ôçò åìðåéñßáò.

Ôá ðáñáðÜíù ìðïñïýí íá äéáôõðùèïýí õðü Ýíá åíáëëáêôéêü ðñßóìá.:
ÕðÜñ÷ïõí åñåèßóìáôá äýï åéäþí: Ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò êáé ôçò ìíÞìçò. Ôá ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò áðïôåëïýí ðñùôïãåíåßò åìðåéñßåò. Ôá ôçò ìíÞìçò óõíèÝôïõí ôçí ìÜèçóç åê ôçò ðñùôïãåíïýò åìðåéñßáò.
Áìöüôåñá ôá åßäç åñåèßóìáôïò, üôáí åêäçëùèïýí, ðñïêáëïýí áíôßäñáóç ôïõ øõ÷ïóþìáôïò. Ç áíôßäñáóç áõôÞ ìðïñåß íá åßíáé óõíåéäçôÞ Þ áóýíåéäç. Ç óõíåéäçôÞ áíôßäñáóç åßíáé ðáñáôÞñçóç, ôïõ óõìâÜíôïò, äçëáäÞ ìßá ðñïóðÜèåéá ìÝôñçóÞò ôïõ. Äéáôåßíïìáé üìùò, üôé óå êÜðïéï âáèìü, ç óõíåéäçôÞ ðáñáôÞñçóç åßíáé êáé ðñïóðÜèåéá ìÝôñçóçò ôçò áíôßäñáóçò ôïõ åáõôïý.
Ç ðñïóðÜèåéá ìÝôñçóçò ôçò áíôßäñáóçò ãßíåôáé ìå êÜðïéá êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç, åíäå÷ïìÝíùò ðïëõäéÜóôáôç, ðïõ åßíáé óõíÜñôçóç ôïõ óõíüëïõ ôùí õðáñîÜíôùí åñåèéóìÜôùí êáé, ðéèáíüôáôá, êáé ôùí áíôéäñÜóåùí ôïõ øõ÷ïóþìáôïò ðñïò áõôÝò (åßíáé äçëáäÞ óõíÜñôçóç ôçò ìÜèçóçò, üðùò ðáñáðÜíù). Ç áóýíåéäç áíôßäñáóç ðñïöáíþò äåí ðáñáôçñåßôáé (åî ïñéóìïý - áëëéþò èá áðáó÷ïëïýóå Þ èá ôáõôéæüôáí ìå ôç óõíåßäçóç / óõíåéäçôïðïßçóç)
Ôþñá, ç óõíïëéêÞ ðñïäéÜèåóç ðïõ ðñïáíáöÝñèçêå, åßíáé ðñïò ïéïäÞðïôå åê ôùí äýï åéäþí åñåèéóìÜôùí. Êáèïñßæåôáé áðü ôçí óõíïëéêÞ êáôÜóôáóç ôïõ øõ÷ïóþìáôïò, ç ïðïßá åßíáé óõíÜñôçóç ìáèÞóåùí êáé Üëëùí åìðåéñéþí ðÝñáí áõôÞò ôçò åêäçëïýìåíçò ìíÞìçò.
Áò åðáíÝëèïõìå ôþñá óôçí êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç ðïõ ãßíåôáé êáôÜ ôçí ðáñáôÞñçóç:
Ç ðáñáôÞñçóç, üðùò åßðáìå, åßíáé ç áðáó÷üëçóç ôïõ óõíåéäçôïý ìå Ýíá óõìâÜí (åîùôåñéêü ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò, Þ åêäÞëùóç ìíÞìçò). Ôï óõíåéäçôü, üôáí áðáó÷ïëåßôáé áðü Ýíá åñÝèéóìá, êÜíåé óôçí ïõóßá êÜðïéåò ìåôñÞóåéò. Åßíáé ìåôñÞóåéò äéáöüñùí ìåãåèþí ðïõ “åíäéáöÝñïõí” ôïõ óõíåéäçôü. Ôï ðïéÝò ôï åíäéáöÝñïõí åßíáé ðñïöáíþò åðßóçò êáé èÝìá ìÜèçóçò êáé èÝìá ðñùôïãåíïýò ðñïäéÜèåóçò.
Ïé êáôçãïñßåò ëïéðüí åßíáé ïé áíôéëÞøåéò, áðü ôï óõíåéäçôü, ôùí ìåãåèþí ôï ïðïßï áõôü “åíäéáöÝñåôáé” íá ìåôñÞóåé. ÊÜèå ìÝôñçóç êáèßóôáôáé Ýôóé ìßá áîéïëüãçóç ôçò åìðåéñßáò âÜóåé åíüò ìåãÝèïõò ðïõ ïñßæåé ìßá êáôçãïñßá.
Åííïåßôáé üôé ç êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç åßíáé åëëåéðÞò. Ç êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç, êáé óõãêåêñéìÝíá ç óõíåéäçôÞ, åßíáé áðïôÝëåóìá ôçò ðñïóðÜèåéáò ôïõ áôüìïõ íá êáôáíïÞóåé ôçí óõíïëéêÞ áíôßäñáóç ôïõ óôçí åìðåéñßá.[1] Ç ìÝñïò ôçò õðÜñ÷ïõóáò êáôçãïñéïðïßçóçò ìðïñåß íá ìçí áðáó÷ïëÞóåé ôï óõíåéäçôü, êáé íá ìåßíáé õðïóõíåßäçôç êáôÜ ðåñßðôùóç.
Ïôáí ôï Üôïìï áíôéäñÜ óôï åñÝèéóìá, ç üðïéá êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç ôçò ðáñáôÞñçóç ãßíåôáé áíôéëçðôÞ ùò Ýíá ðïëõäéÜóôáôï óõíáßóèçìá[2]. ×ùñßò ôçí åêäÞëùóç ôïõ óõíáéóèÞìáôïò äåí Ý÷åé ïëïêëçñùèåß ç äéáäéêáóßá ôçò áßóèçóçò. Ôï óõíáßóèçìá åßíáé áõôü ðïõ äßíåé ïõóßá óôçí åðßãíùóç ôçò áßóèçóçò. Ôç áðïõóßá óõíáéóèÞìáôïò, ìðïñïýìå íá ìéëÞóïõìå ßóùò ãéá ìßá ðñùôïãåíÞ åíåñãïðïßçóç ôïõ ìç÷áíéóìïý ôùí áéóèÞóåùí (ð÷. åíåñãïðïßçóç áéóèçôéêþí íåõñþíùí ëüãù åñåèéóìïý ôùí õðïäï÷Ýùí) áëëÜ ôï åñÝèéóìá äåí ðñïêáëåß áîéüëïãç óõíåéäçôÞ äéåñãáóßá åêðïñåõüìåíç áðü ôïí õðïèÜëáìï.
Óôçí ðåñßðôùóç áõôÞ, ðïõ ìéëÜìå ãéá Ýíá åñÝèéóìá ðñùôïãåíþò ìç áíôéëçðôü áðü ôï óõíåéäçôü, åßíáé ðéèáíüí íá åíåñãïðïéçèåß ìüíïí ôï áõôüíïìï íåõñéêü óýóôçìá ìÝóù áíôáíáêëáóôéêþí ôüîùí. ÖõóéêÜ, ç óõíäåóìïëïãßá åäþ åßíáé áðïôÝëåóìá åðßóçò ìÜèçóçò, áí êáé ü÷é êáô’ áíÜãêçí óõíåéäçôÞò (êáé äç êáôçãïñéïðïéçìÝíçò).
Ôï áðïôÝëåóìá ôçò áõôüíïìçò áíôßäñáóçò ôïõ óõìðáèçôéêïý, ðáñáóõìðáèçôéêïý Þ õðïóõíåßäçôçò ìíÞìçò, ìðïñåß âÝâáéá íá áðáó÷ïëÞóåé ôï óõíåéäçôü áñãüôåñá ìÝóù ìßáò óõóóþñåõóçò ðïõ ôåëéêÜ áðïêôÜ áíôéëçðôü ìÝãåèïò. ÊÜðïõ åäþ êñýâåôáé âÝâáéá ç ðáèïöõóéïëïãßá ìßáò ôåñÜóôéáò ãêÜìáò íïóïëïãéêþí ïíôïôÞôùí, áëëÜ ìå áõôü èá áó÷ïëçèïýìå áñãüôåñá.
Áò ìåßíïõìå ðñïò ôï ðáñüí óôï óõíåéäçôü óõíáßóèçìá, åíèõìïýìåíïé üìùò üôé êáé ôï áóýíåéäï óõíáßóèçìá (Þ ç áóýíåéäç ðáñáôÞñçóç) ìðïñåß íá áêïëïõèåß áíôßóôïé÷ïõò ìç÷áíéóìïýò, êáôçãïñéïðïéïýìåíïõò âÝâáéá ðëÝïí áðü ôïí ìåëåôçôÞ.
Ôþñá, áò åîåôÜóïõìå ëåðôïìåñÝóôåñá ôï óõíåéäçôü óõíáßóèçìá. Êáô’ áñ÷Þí áò ðÜñïõìå Ýíá ðåñéóóüôåñï óùìáôéêü ðáñÜäåéãìá, áðëü êáé ãíùóôü. Ï Üíèñùðïò Ý÷åé áßóèçóç ôçò èåñìïêñáóßáò. ÁõôÞ õðïäéáéñåßôáé óå áßóèçóç èåñìüôçôáò êáé áßóèçóç øý÷ïõò. Ðñïöáíþò, ï Üíèñùðïò äåí áðáó÷ïëåß óõíÝ÷åéá ôïõ óõíåéäçôü ôïõ ìå ôçí åîùôåñéêÞ Þ ôçí áíôéëáìâáíüìåíç èåñìïêñáóßá. Ôüôå äåí Ý÷ïõìå óõíáßóèçìá æÝóôçò Þ øý÷ïõò.
Ôï óõíåéäçôü áíôéäñÜ óõíÞèùò óôéò áëëáãÝò Þ óôç óõóóþñåõóç, ç ïðïßá ðñïêáëåß ìßá Ýììåóç áëëáãÞ óå Üëëï ìÝãåèïò, ðïõ ìðïñåß íá åëêýóåé ôçí ðñïóï÷Þ ôïõ áôüìïõ êáé óôç èåñìïêñáóßá. Ïôáí, åí ðÜóåé ðåñéðôþóåé åêäçëùèåß óõíáßóèçìá, áõôü ìðïñåß íá åßíáé èåôéêü Þ áñíçôéêü êáé óßãïõñá ó÷åôéêü, áíÜëïãá ìå ôç óõíïëéêÞ ðñïäéÜèåóç (ð÷, äõíáôüôçôá ïìïéïóôáôéêÞò ðñïóáñìïãÞò óôá íÝá äåäïìÝíá èåñìïêñáóßáò). Ç ßäéá åîùôåñéêÞ èåñìïêñáóßá ìðïñåß íá ìáò öáßíåôáé æåóôüôåñç Þ øõ÷ñüôåñç.
Ãåíéêüôåñá, êáé óáöþò üóïí áöïñÜ ôéò áéóèÞóåéò ðñïò ôï ðåñéâÜëëïí, åßíáé äåäïìÝíï üôé ôï óõíáßóèçìá ðïõ ìðïñåß íá ðñïêýðôåé áðü åíåñãïðïßçóç ôùí éäßùí áéóèçôçñßùí õðïäï÷Ýùí, ìðïñåß íá ðïéêßëåé ôüóï óå Ýíôáóç ôçò åíôýðùóçò ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò üóï êáé óôçí åíäå÷üìåíç óõãêéíçóéáêÞ áíôßäñáóç. ÓõìðåñéëáìâÜíïíôáò ôçí åêäÞëùóç ìíÞìçò óôï óõíåéäçôü ùò åñÝèéóìá ðïõ ìðïñåß íá ãßíåé áéóèçôü, äéáôåßíïìáé üôé ôï ßäéï ìïíôÝëï áíôßäñáóçò, äçë. åñÝèéóìá/åêäÞëùóç ìíÞìçò - áßóèçóç/áõôïðáñáôÞñçóç - óõíáßóèçìá/óõãêßíçóç, êáëýðôåé áìöüôåñá ôá åßäç åñåèßóìáôïò.
Ï öõóéêüò ðüíïò
Ï Gannong óôçí ÉáôñéêÞ Öõóéïëïãßá( Åêä. 1974) áíáöÝñåé üôé åî üëùí ôùí áéóèÞóåùí ï ðüíïò åßíáé ç ìüíç ðïõ óõííäÝåôáé áðïêëåéóôéêÜ ìå áñíçôéêü óõíáßóèçìá. Äéáôåßíïìáé üôé ï Gannong óöÜëëåé.
Ï ðüíïò åßíáé öõóéêÜ áìõíôéêÞ äõíáôüôçôá ôïõ ïñãáíéóìïý íá áíôéëáìâÜíåôáé êÜôé åðéêßíäõíï, êáé öõóéêÜ åõëüãùò (áí êáé ü÷é õðï÷ñåùôéêÜ???) ðñïêáëåß ãåíéêþò áñíçôéêü óõíáßóèçìá, ëåéôïõñãþíôáò äéá ôïõ áíôéêéíÞôñïõ.
Ï ðüíïò åßíáé ùóôüóï åëëåéðÞò ðëçñïöüñçóç. Ôï øõ÷üóùìá åßíáé Ýôáé öôéáãìÝíï þóôå íá åíåñãïðïéåßôáé ôï stress system ùò óõíáßóèçìá óôïí ðüíï, äéüôé ôï øõ÷üóùìá ðñÝðåé êáôÜ êáíüíá íá ìðåß óå áìõíôéêÞ äéÜèåóç, ìéÜ êáé ðëÞñçò ðëçñïöïñßá äåí õðÜñ÷åé.
Äéáôåßíïìáé üôé ï ðüíïò åßíáé äõúêüò ðñïò ôçí ãíþóç. Ãíþóç ôçò ðñáãìáôéêÞò ðçãÞò ôïõ êéíäýíïõ, äçëáäÞ ðëÞñçò ðëçñïöüñçóç (åðßãíùóç) ôïõ ðñáãìáôéêïý óõìâÜíôïò ðïõ ðñïêÜëåóå, ìðïñåß íá öÝñåé ôçí çñåìßá óôï Üôïìï, åÜí áõôü ãíùñßæåé ôçí ðñáãìáôéêÞ êáôÜóôáóç êáé âÜóåé áõôÞò ìðïñåß íá áðåíåñãïðïéÞóåé á÷ñåßáóôç Üìõíá.
ÅÜí ç êáôÜóôáóç êáé ç ãíþóç ôçò åßíáé ôÝôïéåò ðïõ íá åðéôñÝðïõí ôçí áíáóôïëÞ ôïõ stress system, ôï áñíçôéêü óõíáßóèçìá ìðïñåß íá ìåéùèåß, ßóùò êáé íá åîáëåéöèåß ôåëåßùò. ÁëëÜ, âåâáßùò, åñùôÜôáé êáíåßò áí ìðïñåß íá äéáâåß ôç äéá÷ùñéóôéêÞ ãñáììÞ êáé ôï óõíáßóèçìá ôïõ ðüíïõ íá ãßíåé èåôéêü.
Åíá ôÝôïéï öáéíüìåíï ìðïñåß ßóùò íá åìöáíßæåôáé óôïí ìáæï÷éóìü. Ï ìáæï÷éóôÞò ìðïñåß íá íéþèåé êáô’ áñ÷Þí áóöÜëåéá óôá ÷Ýñéá ôïõ óõíôñüöïõ ôïõ. Ïôáí ëïéðüí åêäçëùèåß ï ðüíïò, ï äåñüìåíïò ãíùñßæåé üôé óôçí ðñáãìáôéêüôçôá ï ðüíïò äåí ðñïìçíýåé êÜðïéïí êßíäõíï, åðåéäÞ ãíùñßæåé ôá üñéÜ ôïõ, ãíùñßæåé ôéò åíåñãåéáêÝò êáé ÷ñïíéêÝò áðáéôÞóåéò ôçò ôõ÷üí ßáóÞò ôïõ (ìå ôçí åõñýôåñç Ýííïéá ôïõ üñïõ) êáé íéþèåé Üíåôá ìå ôçí éäÝá íá îïäÝøåé ôçí áðáñáßôçôç åíÝñãåéá Þ ÷ñüíï.
Ôç áðïõóßá ðëÞñïõò ãíþóåùò, ôï ìáæï÷éóôéêü Üôïìï ìðïñåß íá Ý÷åé áíÜìéêôá óõíáéóèÞìáôá, áíÜëïãá ìå ôçí êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç. Ôá áñíçôéêÜ ôüôå, ðïõ ðáñüëá áõôÜ äåí õðåñíéêïýí ôçí ôåëéêÞ ÝíäïóÞ ôïõ óôçí ïäõíçñÞ äéáäéêáóßá, ìðïñåß íá åßíáé
·      Öüâïò üôé ï ðüíïò èá åßíáé õðåñâïëéêüò (êáé åíäå÷ïìÝíùò èá ðñïêáëÝóåé êÜðïéá âëÜâç)
·      Èõìüò ãéáôß ôßèåôáé õðü Ýëåã÷ï êáé ßóùò áðáéôçèåß éáìáôéêÞ åíÝñãåéá ðïõ ï ßäéïò äåí Ý÷åé áêüìç áðïöáóßóåé íá äéáèÝóåé áäéáìáñôýñçôá.
·      Ôáðåßíùóç ãéáôß ìðïñåß ç åéêüíá ôïõ, åíäßäïíôïò óôïí Ýëåã÷ï, íá ìåéùèåß óôá ìÜôéá ôïõ óõíôñüöïõ ôïõ.
Ôï ìáæï÷éóôéêü Üôïìï, üìùò, áêüìá êáé ôç ðáñïõóßá ôÝôïéùí áñíçôéêþí ðôõ÷þí ôïõ óõíáéóèÞìáôïò, áíôéäñÜ ôåëéêÜ ìå óõíïëéêÜ èåôéêü óõíáßóèçìá (ðüóï ìÜëëïí üôáí ç ãíþóç åßíáé ðëÞñçò). Ïé èåôéêÝò ðôõ÷Ýò ôïõ óõíáéóèÞìáôïò ðñïöáíþò åìðåäþèçêáí ìå ôçí ìÜèçóç. ÁõôÝò ìðïñåß íá åßíáé:
·      ÅìðÝäùóç óåîïõáëéêþí áíôáíáêëáóôéêþí. Ôï Üôïìï åñåèßæåôáé áðü ôçí êõñéáñ÷ßá êáé åèßæåôáé óå áõôÞí, óõíäõÜæïíôÜò ôçí ìå Ýíá ìïíôÝëï óõìâßùóçò üðïõ ç õðáãùãÞ ôïõ óôçí êõñéáñ÷ßá ôïõ Üëëïõ ôïõ áíáéñåß ôçí áíÜãêç íá åêôéìÞóåé êáôáóôÜóåéò.
·      Áßóèçóç ëýôñùóçò ëüãù ôéìùñßáò. Åßíáé Ýíá ðáñåìöåñÝò öáéíüìåíï, ðïõ ç õðáãùãÞ óôçí êõñéáñ÷ßá ôáõôßæåôáé ìå áßóèçóç åìðéóôïóýíçò óôéò çèéêÝò áñ÷Ýò ôïõ êõñßáñ÷ïõ. Ï êõñßáñ÷ïò, ôéìùñþíôáò, áðáëëÜóåé ôïí êõñéáñ÷ïýìåíï áðü ôçí áâåâáéüôçôá ôçò åíï÷Þò.
Óå üëåò áõôÝò ôéò ðåñéðôþóåéò, õðÜñ÷ïõí åìðåäùìÝíá áíôáíáêëáóôéêÜ, ôá ïðïßá ìðïñåß íá ëåéôïõñãÞóïõí ðñßí, ìåôÜ Þ/êáé êáôÜ ôçí áíôßëçøç ôçò ðñùôïãåíïýò áßóèçóçò ôïõ ðüíïõ. Ùò ôÝôïéá áëëÜæïõí ôçí óõíïëéêÞ ðñïäéÜèåóç, êáé ãåííïýí Ýíá éó÷õñü êáé ìÜëéóôá ìåãÜëçò óõíåéäçôÞò äéÜñêåéáò óõãêéíçóéáêü áíôáíáêëáóôéêü ðïõ êáèéóôÜ ôï óõíáßóèçìá óõíïëéêÜ èåôéêü. ÌÜëéóôá Ý÷ïõí êáôÜ êáíüíá éáìáôéêÞ äñÜóç, ìå ôçí Ýííïéá üôé åíåñãïðïéïýíôáé ùò äéïñèùôéêÞ áíôßäñáóç óôç óõóóþñåõóç ôïõ ðüíïõ.

Ôï óõãêéíçóéáêü áíôáíáêëáóôéêü

Áò ìåßíïõìå ëïéðüí óôï ðáñÜäåéãìá ôïõ öõóéêïý ðüíïõ. Ï ìáæï÷éóôÞò ðëçñïöïñåßôáé üôé ôïí ðåñéìÝíåé îýëï. Áõôü ôï ðëçñïöïñåßôáé êáô’ áñ÷Þí áðü ìßá åîùôåñéêÞ áßóèçóç. Ôï ðñùôïãåíÝò óõíáßóèçìá åßíáé ç ðáñáôÞñçóç êáé óõíåéäçôïðïßçóç ôïõ ìõíÞìáôïò. Ãßíåôáé ëïéðüí ìÝôñçóç ìå âÜóç ôçí êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç. Ç êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç åðéôñÝðåé ÷ïíäñéêÜ ôá åîÞò:
1.    Êáôáíüçóç ôïõ ìõíÞìáôïò. Ôï ìÞíõìá Ý÷åé ìåôáäïèåß ìå êÜðïéï óçìáéíüìåíï (íüçìá, öñÜóç, ãñáðôü, ïôéäÞðïôå). Ôï óçìáéíüìåíï áíáãíùñßæåôáé üôáí áíáóõñèåß ç ðñþôç ìíÞìç ðïõ óõíäÝåôáé ìå ôï ìÞíõìá. Çäç ëïéðüí Ý÷ïõìå åêäÞëùóç ðáñåëèïíôéêÞò ìíÞìçò, ãéá íá ãßíåé ôï pattern matching.
2.   Áõôü óõíéóôÜ Ýíá íÝï åñÝèéóìá, ôï ïðïßï ðñïêáëåß ðåñáéôÝñù åêäçëþóåéò ìíÞìçò. ÁõôÝò ðëÝïí ìðïñåß íá åßíáé åßôå ðáñåëèïíôéêÝò åßôå ìåëëïíôéêÝò. Äçìéïõñãïýíôáé ëïéðüí óõíåéñìïß Þ óåéñÝò áíáêëÞóåùí ìíÞìçò.
Ïé áíáêëÞóåéò ìíÞìçò åßíáé äýï åéäþí. Ôï Ýíá åßäïò áöïñÜ áíÜìíçóç ðáñüìïéùí åìðåéñéþí (Þ Ýëëåéøçò áõôþí - áõîçìÝíç Üãíïéá - áõîçìÝíïò öüâïò). Åäþ åêäçëþíåôáé ç óçìáóßá ôïõ âáèýôåñïõ åðéðÝäïõ ôçò ìÜèçóçò. Ìðïñåß ïé óõíåéñìïß íá åßíáé ó÷åäüí ôáõôüóçìïé êÜèå öïñÜ, äçëáäÞ âáèéÜ åìðåäùìÝíïé, ìå ìéêñÜ ðåñéèþñéá áðüêëéóçò áðü óõíåéñìü óå óõíåéñìü. Ìðïñåß üìùò ç ðïñåßá ôïõò íá Ý÷åé ìåãáëýôåñï ðïóïóôü áíáæÞôçóçò êáé öáíôáóßáò.
Ôï äåýôåñï åßäïò áöïñÜ Ýãåñóç óõãêéíÞóåùí, äçëáäÞ óõíáéóèÞìáôïò ðïõ äåí ôï ðñïêáëåß ðëÝïí ôï åîùôåñéêü åñÝèéóìá áëëÜ ç áíÜìíçóç ôùí óõãêéíÞóåùí ðïõ óõíäÝïíôáé ìå ôçí ðáñåëèïíôéêÞ Þ ìåëëïíôéêÞ ìíÞìç ðïõ áöïñÜ ðáñüìïéï óõìâÜí.
Ç äéÜñêåéá êáé ç Ýíôáóç ôïõ óõíåéñìïý ìðïñåß Ýôóé íá ðïéêßëïõí. ÊÜðïéá óôéãìÞ Ýñ÷åôáé êáé ç Üìåóç åêäÞëùóç ôïõ ðüíïõ. Ùò ôç óôéãìÞ áõôÞ Ý÷åé êáèïñéóôåß ìßá ðñïäéÜèåóç ðïõ óå ìåãÜëï âáèìü Ý÷åé äéáìïñöùèåß áðü ôç ìÜèçóç. ÁõôÞ öõóéêÜ èá êáèïñßóåé êáé ôçí áíôßäñáóç ôïõ áôüìïõ ôç óôéãìÞ ôçò áßóèçóçò ôïõ ðüíïõ, äçëáäÞ ôï óõíáßóèçìá.

ÐáñáôÞñçóç êáé Êáôáíüçóç

Ïðùò åßðáìå, ôï óõíåéäçôü áðáó÷ïëåßôáé áðü êÜðïéá äéáôáñá÷Þ üôáí ç ðñïò ôïýôï áßóèçóç ãíùóôïðïéÞóåé ó÷åôéêü åñÝèéóìá êáé, ôáõôü÷ñïíá, ç Ýíôáóç ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò åßíáé åðáñêÞò ãéá íá ðñïêáëÝóåé åíôýðùóç. Ôüôå åðé÷åéñåßôáé ðáñáôÞñçóç ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò.
Ç ðáñáôÞñçóç äçìéïõñãåß ìßá åéêüíá óôï Üôïìï. Ç åéêüíá áõôÞ åßíáé äõíáôüí, ìåñéêþò, íá êáôáãñáöåß óôç ìíÞìç.
Ç ðñþôç óçìáíôéêÞ åñþôçóç åßíáé ðùò ìðïñåß íá äçìéïõñãçèåß áõôÞ ç åéêüíá. Äéáôåßíïìáé üôé ç åéêüíá äåí ìðïñåß íá äçìéïõñãçèåß ÷ùñßò ôçí åíåñãïðïßçóç ìíÞìçò. (Áõôü óçìáßíåé õðï÷ñåùôéêÜ üôé ç åéêüíá èá åßíáé õðïêåéìåíéêÞ). Áò ðÜñïõìå ôï ðáñÜäåéãìá ôïõ íåïãíïý.
Ï åãêÝöáëüò ôïõ íåïãíïý åßíáé Þäç éóôïëïãéêÜ ðëÞñùò ó÷çìáôéóìÝíïò. Ôï íåïãíü üìùò Ý÷åé ìçäåíéêÞ ìíÞìç ðáñáóôÜóåùí åíüò ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò ìå äéáôáñá÷Ýò óôï ÷þñï (ó÷Þìáôá) êáé ôçí áêôéíïâïëßá (÷ñþìáôá). Å÷åé üìùò êáëýôåñá åìðåäùìÝíåò ìíÞìåò ðïõ áöïñïýí äéáôáñá÷Ýò óôïí ÷ñüíï (ðáëìïß ôçò êáñäéÜò ìåôáîý Üëëùí = áßóèçóç ôïõ Þ÷ïõ êáé ôçò ñïÞò ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ) Þ ðéèáíþò ïóìÝò êáé ãåýóåéò.
Áò ðñïóðáèÞóïõìå íá óõãêñßíïõìå ôï óõíáßóèçìá ôïõ íåïãíïý ìüëéò åíåñãïðïéçèåß ãéá ðñþôç öïñÜ ç üñáóç. ÕðÜñ÷åé Ýíá ìáæéêü ïðôéêü åñÝèéóìá, ôï ïðïßï åßíáé ðáíôåëþò ìç áíáãíùñßóéìï. Äåí õðÜñ÷åé ç Ýííïéá ôïõ ó÷Þìáôïò (åêôüò ôçò ðéèáíÞò âéïëïãéêÞò õðïäïìÞò). ÌÝñïò ôçò åéêüíáò èá êáôáãñáöåß óôç ìíÞìç (ôç íåïãíéêÞ ìíÞìç ðïõ, åéñÞóèù åí ðáñüäù, áñãüôåñá èá ÷áèåß).
Ç üðïéá ðñïóðÜèåéá êáôáíüçóçò ôçò ðáñáôÞñçóçò èá áðïôõã÷Üíåé ôç áðïõóßá ó÷åôéêÞò ìíÞìçò. Ôï ðáñáôçñïýìåíï åñÝèéóìá èá åßíáé ìÞ ìåôñÞóéìï áðü ôï íåïãíü. Ìå ôçí èåþñçóç ôçò ðëÞñïõò áðïõóßáò êñéôçñßùí ìðïñåß ßóùò íá ãßíåé êáôáíïçôÞ ç ÷ñÞóç ôçò ìíÞìçò óôï óõíáßóèçìá ôïõ åíÞëéêá.
ÂëÝðåé ëïéðüí ôï ìùñü ôçí ßäéá åéêüíá áíïßãïíôáò ôá ìÜôéá ôïõ ìÝ áõôÞí ðïõ èá Ýâëåðå Ýíáò åíÞëéêáò óôïí ßäéï ÷þñï? Ðñïöáíþò ü÷é. Ï âáèìüò êáôáíüçóçò ôçò åéêüíáò åßíáé èåìåëéþäçò ùò ðñïò ôï ôé åéêüíá “âëÝðåé” ôï óõíáßóèçìá. Ôçò üðïéáò åéêüíáò ôçò üðïéáò áßóèçóçò.
Áõôü ìáò öÝñíåé óôçí êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç ôïõ óõíåéäçôïý üôáí ðáñáôçñåß. Ï ôýðïò ôùí êáôçãïñéþí, óõíåéäçôþí êáé õðïóõíåßäçôùí, üðùò ó÷Þìáôá, ÷ñþìáôá, êáé Üëëá, ðïõ äéáèÝôåé ôï øõ÷üóùìá óôï óõíåéäçôü, åßíáé èåìåëéþäïõò óçìáóßáò óôçí åéêüíá ðïõ ôåëéêÜ èá ó÷çìáôßóåé ôï Üôïìï áðü ôï åîùôåñéêü åñÝèéóìá ðïõ èá ãßíåé áéóèçôü.
Ç äå êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç åßíáé ìßá êáôáíüçóç ôïõ ðáñáôçñïýìåíïõ åñåèßóìáôïò. Êáé óôï âáèìü ðïõ ìßá êáôçãïñßá áíôéóôïé÷åß ðñïò Ýíá ìÝãåèïò ìåôñÞóéìï óå êÜðïéá êëßìáêá, ç ìÝôñçóç ôïõ áíôßóôïé÷ïõ ìåãÝèïõò åßíáé áõôÞ ðïõ êáèïñßæåé ôçí êáôáíüçóç ôçò áíôßóôïé÷çò ðôõ÷Þò ôïõ åîùôåñéêïý åñåèßóìáôïò.
ÕðÜñ÷ïõí áéóèÞóåéò ðïõ ôá åñåèßóìáôÜ ôïõò åßíáé ðéï Üìåóá êáôáíïÞóéìá. Ãéá ðáñÜäåéãìá, õðÜñ÷åé Ýíá Þ ëßãá ìüíï ìåãÝèç ðïõ ìðïñïýí íá ÷ñçóéìïðïéçèïýí ãéá íá ìåôñçèåß êáé íá êáôáíïçèåß ôï åñÝèéóìá. ÐáñÜäåéãìá ôÝôïéï åßíáé ç áßóèçóç ôïõ ðüíïõ, ç õöÞ êáé ôï õðüóôñùìá ôïõ ïðïßïõ ìðïñåß íá åßíáé ðïëýðëïêá, áëëÜ ôá äéáèÝóéìá ìåãÝèç ãéá ôçí êáôáíüçóÞ ôïõ ëßãá êáé, óôçí ïõóßá, ìïíïäéÜóôáôá[3]. Ï Üíèñùðïò ìáèáßíåé ëïéðüí ó÷åôéêÜ ãñÞãïñá (ßóùò ðïëý ãñÞãïñá) íá áíáãíùñßæåé ôïí ðüíï.

Ï Óõíåéñìüò ôçò Êáôáíüçóçò

ÐïëëÝò öïñÝò, ç ðáñáôÞñçóç åßíáé ìåí óõíåéäçôÞ, ùóôüóï áöÞíåé ôï Üôïìï áäéÜöïñï. Ãéá íá ãßíù ðéï óõãêåêñéìÝíïò êáé ðïóïôéêüò, ôï Üôïìï åðéôñÝðåé ôï áìÝóùò åðüìåíï åîùôåñéêü åñÝèéóìá íá áðáó÷ïëÞóåé ôï óõíåéäçôü ôïõ êáé äåí ðñïâáßíåé óå Üëëç áíÜêëçóç ìíÞìçò, ðÝñáí áõôÞò ðïõ åßíáé áíáãêáßá ãéá ôïí âáèìü êáôáíüçóçò ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò ðïõ áðáéôåßôáé õðü ôéò ðåñéóôÜóåéò.
ÕðÜñ÷åé üìùò ðåñßðôùóç ôï ðñþôï óõíáßóèçìá íá ðñïêáëÝóåé óõíåéñìïýò. Óå ìßá ðñþôç ðñïóÝããéóç, èá ðñïóðáèÞóù íá ïìáäïðïéÞóù ôéò ðåñéðôþóåéò êáôÜ ôéò ïðïßåò ìðïñåß íá ðñïêëçèåß óõíåéñìüò:
·      Ôï Üôïìï íéþèåé üôé äåí Ý÷åé åðáñêÞ êáôáíüçóç ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò, ãéá ïðïéïíäÞðïôå ëüãï. Ìðáßíåé ëïéðüí óå êÜðïéáò ìïñöÞò óêÝøç ãéá íá ôï êáôáíïÞóåé.[4] Áõôü, áðü ôï Üôïìï, ìðïñåß íá åêëçöèåß åßôå ùò áíáêñéâÞò ìÝôñçóç (áâåâáéüôçôá ãéá ôçí ôéìÞ êÜðïéïõ ìåãÝèïõò) åßôå ùò åëëåéðÞò êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç (áíõðáñîßá ãíùóôïý ìåãÝèïõò ôï ïðïßï íá ìåôñçèåß - ãéá íá êáôáíïçèåß ôï åñÝèéóìá)
·      Ôï Üôïìï áíôéäñÜ Ýíôïíá óôç ìåôñïýìåíç ôéìÞ (èåôéêÜ Þ áñíçôéêÜ) åíüò Þ ðåñéóóïôÝñùí ìåãåèþí ðïõ õðåéóÝñ÷ïíôáé óôçí êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç ôïõ ðáñáôçñïýìåíïõ åñåèßóìáôïò.
Óôçí ðñþôç ðåñßðôùóç, áéôßá ôïõ óõíåéñìïý åßíáé ç êñéôéêÞ óôÜóç áðÝíáíôé óôç äéáäéêáóßá ôçò ìÝôñçóçò Áõôü ðïõ áðáó÷ïëåß ôï Üôïìï (èåôéêÜ Þ áñíçôéêÜ) åßíáé ç ðïéüôçôá ôçò åéêüíáò ðïõ äçìéïõñãåßôáé êáôÜ ôï óõíáßóèçìá.
Óôç äåýôåñç ðåñßðôùóç, ôï óöÜëìá Þ ç õðïêåéìåíéêüôçôá ôçò ìÝôñçóçò äåí áðáó÷ïëåß ùò ðñïïðôéêÞ ôï Üôïìï. ÁíôéèÝôùò, ôï Üôïìï êáôçãïñéïðïéåß ôï åñÝèéóìá ìå ôçí áíôáíáêëáóôéêÞ êáé óõó÷åôéóôéêÞ (associative) Ýãåñóç ìíçìþí, ïé ïðïßåò êáôçãïñéïðïéïýí ôï åñÝèéóìá âÜóåé ôùí óõíáéóèçìÜôùí ðïõ ïé åãåéñüìåíåò ìíÞìåò (ðëÝïí ôá íÝá åñåèßóìáôá óôïí ãíùóôéêü êýêëï - ü÷é åîùôåñéêÜ) ðñïêáëïýí.
Óôçí ðñáãìáôéêüôçôá âÝâáéá, ïé äýï áõôÝò ðåñéðôþóåéò åßíáé åêöÜíóåéò ôïõ âáèýôåñïõ öáéíïìÝíïõ ôçò áîéïëüãçóçò, áðü ôï óõíåéäçôü, ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò ðïõ ðñïêÜëåóå ôï óõíáßóèçìá. Êáé óôéò äýï ðåñéðôþóåéò, åìöáíßæåôáé ìßá áðüêëéóç ôïõ óõíáéóèÞìáôïò ðÝñáí åíüò êáôùöëßïõ áíï÷Þò, áñêåôÞ ãéá íá ðõñïäïôÞóåé áêïëïõèéáêÞ Ýãåñóç ìíçìþí, äçëáäÞ óõíåéñìü. Êáé ç áðüêëéóç áõôÞ åßíáé éó÷õñÜ óõíáñôçìÝíç ìå ôçí áâåâáéüôçôá.

Áðüêëéóç êáôáíüçóçò

Åäþ èá áó÷ïëçèïýìå ìå ôá óõíåéñìéêÜ öáéíüìåíá ðïõ åìöáíßæïíôáé üôáí ìðïñïýìå êõñßùò íá ìéëÞóïõìå ãéá áßóèçóç åëëåéðïýò êáôáíüçóçò. ÃåíéêÜ áíáöåñüìáóôå óôéò ëåéôïõñãßåò ôïõ óõíåéäçôïý ðïõ ãßíïíôáé áíôéëçðôÝò ùò ðñïóðÜèåéá áðüêôçóçò ãíþóçò.

Áðüêëéóç êáôáíüçóçò ìå èåôéêÞ áíôßäñáóç

Åäþ Ý÷ïõìå ôï öáéíüìåíï ôçò äßøáò ôçò ãíþóçò Þ ôçò ìÜèçóçò. Ôï Üôïìï åßíáé åîü÷ùò ðáñáôçñçôéêü êáé áöéåñþíåé óõíåéñìéêü ÷ñüíï óôçí êáôáíüçóç ôùí åñåèéóìÜôùí. Ç êáôáíüçóç Ý÷åé ìåãÜëç óçìáóßá, êáé ç ðéèáíüôçôá íÝá åîùôåñéêÜ åñåèßóìáôá íá äéáêüøïõí ôïí óõíåéñìü ìåéþíåôáé. Ôï Üôïìï çñåìåß üôáí íéþóåé üôé Ý÷åé åðáñêþò êáôçãïñéïðïéçìÝíï ôï åñÝèéóìá (ìå äéáêñéôü Þ äéáéóèçôéêü ôñüðï)
ÖõóéêÜ, Ýíá ôÝôïéï Üôïìï óõ÷íÜ áíáæçôåß íÝåò êáôçãïñßåò êáé âáèýôåñç êáôáíüçóç. Åíåñãïðïéåß ðåñéóóüôåñï ôç öáíôáóßá êáé ôïõò ìç÷áíéóìïýò áíáæÞôçóçò êáé Ý÷åé ðñïäéÜèåóç ðñïò ôçí áíßá, áí äåí õðÜñ÷åé ðëïýôïò åñåèéóìÜôùí ãéá íá áðáó÷ïëïýí ôï óõíåéäçôü. Ôï óßãïõñï åßíáé üôé õðÜñ÷åé áðüêëéóç óõíå÷þò áðü ôïí âáèýôåñï õðáñîéáêü óôü÷ï ôçò åéò âÜèïò êáôáíüçóçò (åãþ áò ðïýìå).

Áðüêëéóç êáôáíüçóçò ìå áñíçôéêÞ áíôßäñáóç

Ç Ýëëåéøç êáôáíüóçò, óôçí ðñïêåßìåíç ðåñßðôùóç, ìðïñåß íá ðñïêáëåß ìßá áíáóöÜëåéá óôï Üôïìï åðåéäÞ äåí ìðïñåß íá åßíáé óßãïõñï ãéá ôéò óõíÝðåéåò ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò, ìç ìðïñþíôáò íá ôï êáôáíïÞóåé åðáñêþò êáé íá ôï óõó÷åôßóåé ìå ãíùóôÝò ìíÞìåò.
Ç áðüêëéóç áõôÞ ðéèáíüôáôá èá ðõñïäïôÞóåé åðßóçò ôç öáíôáóßá Þ Ýíáí ìç÷áíéóìü áíáæÞôçóçò ìå óôü÷ï ôçí åëÜôôùóç ôçò áíáóöÜëåéáò, äçëáäÞ ôçí åëá÷éóôïðïßçóç ôçò áðüêëéóçò.
Ïðùò êáé óôçí ðåñßðôùóç ôçò èåôéêÞò áíôßäñáóçò, ôï Üôïìï ìðïñåß íá áíáæçôåß åðßóçò íÝåò êáôçãïñßåò, åÜí Ý÷åé ðñïäéÜèåóç ðñïò ôçí áðüêëéóç êáôáíüçóçò. ÐáñÜäåéãìá åßíáé ï õðï÷ïíäñéóìüò(?)
Ãéá ðáñÜäåéãìá, óå ìßá ðïëý ìéêñÞ çëéêßá, ôï Üôïìï Ý÷åé ìÜèåé íá áíáãíùñßæåé ôïí ðüíï. ÁíôéäñÜ óå áõôüí ëüãù ôïõ áñíôçéêïý ðñùôïãåíïýò óõíáéóèÞìáôïò, áëëÜ äåí ðñïóðáèåß êáô’ áíÜãêçí íá ôïí êáôáíïÞóåé. Óå ìßá ìåãáëýôåñç çëéêßá, ç áðëÞ áíáãíþñéóç ôïõ ðüíïõ ßóùò íá ìçí åßíáé áñêåôÞ óôï øõ÷üóùìá êáé íá óõíïäåýåôáé, ðÝñáí ôïõí öüâïõ ôïõ ðüíïõ, áðü ôçí áíÜãêç äéÜãíùóçò, ãéá íá ãíùñßæåé ï ðüíïò ôé åðéðôþóåéò ìðïñåß íá Ý÷åé óôçí õãåßá ôïõ.

ÓõíåéñìéêÜ öáéíüìåíá áðüêëéóçò êáôáíüçóçò

Åöüóïí ç áðüêëéóç êáôáíüçóçò ðñïêáëÝóåé óõíåéñìü, åíäéáöÝñïí Ý÷åé íá äåß êáíåßò ðùò ìðïñåß íá åîåëé÷èåß ï óõíåéñìüò óôïí ÷ñüíï, êáé ðùò ìðïñåß íá åðçñåÜóåé ôçí ìåëëïíôéêÞ óõìðåñéöïñÜ.
Êáô’ áñ÷Þí, éêáíÞ óõíèÞêç ãéá íá ðáýóåé ï êÜèå óõíåéñìüò åßíáé íá åìöáíéóôåß åîùôåñéêü åñÝèéóìá éêáíÞò Ýíôáóçò ãéá íá áðáó÷ïëÞóåé ôï óõíåéäçôü ôüóï þóôå íá äéáêïðåß ï óõíåéñìéêüò êýêëïò. Åííïåßôáé üôé ç êáôÜóôáóç ôïõ óõíåéñìïý åðçñåÜæåé ôç óõíïëéêÞ ðñïäéÜèåóç ðïõ Ý÷åé ôï Üôïìï ïýôùò þóôå Ýíá íÝï åîùôåñéêü åñÝèéóìá íá áðáó÷ïëÞóåé ôï óõíåéäçôü. Ìå Üëëá ëüãéá, ç êáôÜóôáóç ôïõ óõíåéñìïý ñõèìßæåé (ü÷é âÝâáéá áðïêëåéóôéêÜ) ôçí äéáðåñáôüôçôá ôùí äéáôáñá÷þí ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò áðü ôéò äéÜöïñåò áéóèÞóåéò.
Ôï øõ÷üóùìá, åðßóçò, ìðïñåß íá Ý÷åé ðñïäéÜèåóç ãéá êüñï (åõóôáèÞò êáôÜóôáóç) Þ ãéá áóôÜèåéá. Óôçí ðñþôç ðåñßðôùóç, ìßá ðáñÜôáóç ôïõ óõíåéñìïý óôï ÷ñüíï, áíåîáñôÞôùò áðïôåëåóìÜôùí, ôåßíåé íá ìåéþóåé åîáóèåíÞóåé ôçí öáíôáóßá Þ ôçí áíáæÞôçóç, ðñïêáëþíôáò ôåëéêÜ ôçí ðáýóç ôïõ óõíåéñìïý (Ýóôù êáé ðáñïäéêÜ).
Óôç äåýôåñç ðåñßðôùóç, ç áðüêëéóç ãßíåôáé üëï êáé ìåãáëýôåñçò óçìáóßáò, áõîÜíïíôáò ôçí ðñïäéÜèåóç åðéìÞêõíóçò ôïõ óõíåéñìïý, ïðüôå êáé èá ðáýóåé áðü áíùôÝñá âßá êáé ìüíïí (ôçí ïðïßá, áðüôé öáßíåôáé, ìðïñåß íá ðñïêáëÝóåé êáé ôï ßäéï ôï øõ÷üóùìá áðü êÜðïéá ðáèïãÝíåóç Þ ëéðïèõìßá).
Åííïåßôáé üôé èá ðñïôáèåß áñãüôåñá êÜðïéï ìïíôÝëï ãéá ôç äéÜñêåéá êáé Ýíôáóç ôïõ óõíåéñìïý ìå êÜðïéá åîßóùóç äéáöïñþí.

Áðüêëéóç êáôçãïñéïðïßçóçò

Åäþ èá áó÷ïëçèïýìå ìå ôá óõíåéñìéêÜ öáéíüìåíá êáôÜ ôá ïðïßá ôï øõ÷üóùìá äåí áìöéâÜëëåé ùò ðñïò ôçí áêñßâåéá ôçò ìÝôñçóçò Þ ôçò êáôáíüçóçò, áëëÜ åðåîåñãÜæåôáé ôçí áðüêëéóç áíÜìåóá óôçí ðáñïýóá ôïõ êáôÜóôáóç (üðùò ôçí áíôéëáìâÜíåôáé) êáé ôéò óõíÝðåéåò ôïõ (êáôÜ ôï Üôïìï êáôáíïçìÝíïõ) åñåèßóìáôïò.
Óôá öáéíüìåíá áõôÜ åßíáé ïñáôÞ ç áíôáíáêëáóôéêÞ Ýãåñóç ìíçìþí ëüãù ìÜèçóçò, áõôü ðïõ ãåíéêþò áðïêáëþ õðåñåãþ. Ôï øõ÷üóùìá, ðñïóëáìâÜíïíôáò Ýíá åîùôåñéêü åñÝèéóìá, ôï êáôçãïñéïðïéåß (óõ÷íÜ õðïóõíåßäçôá) âÜóåé ãíùñéóìÜôùí. Ç óõó÷åôéóôéêÞ (associative) äñÜóç ôçò ìíÞìçò ðñïêáëåß ôçí Ýãåñóç ìíçìþí óõìâÜíôùí ðáñüìïéùí (âÜóåé ôùí ôéìþí ôùí ãíùñéóìÜôùí) ìå ôï ôåëåõôáßï óõìâÜí ðïõ áðáó÷üëçóå ôï óõíåéäçôü.
Ç ìÝôñçóç ôïõ ôåëåõôáßïõ óõìâÜíôïò áðü ôçí ðáñáôÞñçóç, åßíáé üìùò ðëÝïí âáñÝùò åðçñåáóìÝíç áðü ôá óõíáéóèÞìáôá (êáé ôéò ìíÞìåò áõôþí) ðïõ ôá ðáëáéüôåñá, ðáñüìïéá ðåñéóôáôéêÜ, åß÷áí ðñïêáëÝóåé.
ÅíäéáöÝñïí ãéá ðñïãñáììáôéóìü: ÂÜëå Ýíá Üôïìï íá åêôåèåß ðïëëÝò öïñÝò óå ðáñüìïéï åñÝèéóìá. Äéåñåýíçóå ôçí ìÝôñçóç ðïõ êÜíåé êÜèå öïñÜ, ùò óõóóþñåõóç ðñïäéÜèåóçò ëÜèïõò ëüãù ìÜèçóçò.
Ìå ôçí áíôáíáêëáóôéêÞ Ýãåñóç äéáöüñùí ìíçìþí áßóèçóçò åñåèéóìÜôùí, åãåßñïíôáé êáé ôá áíôßóôïé÷á óõíáéóèÞìáôá ðïõ ðñïÝêõðôáí áðü ôéò äéÜöïñåò êáôçãïñéïðïéÞóåéò.

Áðüêëéóç êáôçãïñéïðïßçóçò ìå èåôéêÞ áíôßäñáóç

ÌáèçìáôéêÞ Äéáôýðùóç

Ç áßóèçóç åßíáé Ýíá êáíÜëé ÷ñïíïìåôáâëçôÞò äéáðåñáôüôçôáò (öÜóìá) ãéá ôýðïõò äéáôáñá÷þí ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò ÷ùñü÷ñïíïõ.
Ãéá êÜèå áßóèçóç, õðÜñ÷åé Ýíá êáôþöëéï, êáèïñéæüìåíï áðü ôçí êáôÜóôáóç ôïõ óõóôÞìáôïò êáé óôáèåñÝò, ðïõ óõíïëéêÜ åðçñåÜæïõí ôï êáôÜ ðüóïí ôï åñÝèéóìá èá áðáó÷ïëÞóåé ôï óõíåéäçôü.
Ôï åñÝèéóìá ðñïêáëåß ìßá áðåéêüíéóç óôï óõíåéäçôü. Ç äéáäéêáóßá ôçò áðåéêüíéóçò óõíéóôÜ ôï óõíáßóèçìá. Ôï óõíáßóèçìá óõíéóôÜ ìßá ðáñáôÞñçóç ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò. Ç ðáñáôÞñçóç óõíßóôáôáé óôçí ìÝôñçóç ôïõ óõìâÜíôïò âÜóåé ìßáò êáôçãïñéïðïßçóçò.
Ç êáôçïãïñéïðïßçóç åßíáé Ýíá óýíïëï óíåéäçôïðïéçìÝíùí åííïéþí êáé õðïóõíåßäçôùí ìåãåèþí (ðïõ áìöüôåñá åäñÜæïíôáé óå ìíÞìç) ôùí ïðïßùí ôçí ôéìÞ áðïðåéñÜôáé íá ìåôñÞóåé ç øõ÷Þ.
Ç Ýêâáóç ôçò êáôçãïñéïðïßçóçò óõíéóôÜ ôçí êáôáíüçóç ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò. Ç ìíÞìç ôçò ðáñáôÞñçóçò áðïèçêåýåôáé âÜóåé ôçò ðáñïýóáò êáôáíüçóçò. Ç üðïéá êáôáíüçóç áîéïëïãåßôáé ùò ðñïò äýï ðáñáìÝôñïõò:
1.    Ôçí áâåâáéüôçôá ðïõ ç øõ÷Þ áéóèÜíåôáé üôé Ý÷åé ùò ðñïò ôçí ïñèüôçôá êáé åðÜñêåéá ôçò ìÝôñçóçò
2.   Ôï óõíáßóèçìá ðïõ èá åãåßñåé ç üðïéá ìÝôñçóç ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò âÜóåé ôçò üðïéáò êáôçãïñéïðïßçóçò.
Ç áâåâáéüôçôá ôçò ìÝôñçóçò åßíáé åóùôåñéêÞ áßóèçóç, êáé üôáí îåðåñíÜ ôï êáôþöëéï, áðáó÷ïëåß ôï óõíåéäçôü, ìå ðñùôáñ÷éêü óõíáßóèçìá ôçí åíåñãïðïßçóç ìç÷áíóìïý áíáæÞôçóçò. Ìðïñïýìå íá ìéëÞóïõìå ãéá ìßá äõúêÞ åéêüíá óõíåéäçôï-ïäçãïýìåíç (äçëáäÞ ôï óõíåéäçôü ðñïêáëåß ôçí åîùôåñßêåõóç ôïõ õðïóõíåßäçôïõ. Õðïóõíßäçôï åßíáé ôï óýíïëï ôùí ìíçìþí ðïõ äåí áðáó÷ïëïýí ôï óõíåéäçôü ìßá óõãêåêñéìÝíç óôéãìÞ).
Ôï óõíáßóèçìá, äçëáäÞ ç ðáñáôÞñçóç êáé ìÝôñçóç, áöïý ìåôñçèåß (áíåîáñôÞôùò ìåãÝèïõò ôïõ óöÜëìáôïò) äçìéïõñãåß ìßá ðñïäéÜèåóç åêäÞëùóçò ðåñáéôÝñù ìíçìþí âÜóåé ôùí ãíùñéóìÜôùí êáé ôùí ôéìþí ôïõò, ðïõ ðñïÝêõøáí áðü ôçí êáôçãïñéïðïéçìÝíç ìÝôñçóç. Åäþ öáíôáæüìáóôå ôçí äõúêÞ åéêüíá õðïóõíåéäçôï-êáèïñéæüìåíç. Ç êáôáíüçóç Ýôóé ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò ãßíåôáé äéá ôçò ôáýôéóÞò ôïõ (èåôéêÜ Þ áñíçôéêÜ) ðñïò ìßá óåéñÜ ìíçìþí ðáëáéüôåñùí åñåèéóìÜôùí.
Ç ìÝôñçóç ðïõ ãßíåôáé åðçñåÜæåôáé áðü ôéò ìíÞìåò áõôÝò. Ôá ðáëáéÜ åñåèßóìáôá, áíÜëïãá ôïõ óõíáéóèÞìáôïò ðïõ ðñïêÜëåóáí óôçí åðï÷Þ ôïõò, ôåßíïõí íá ðñïðáãáíäßóïõí ôçí ìíÞìç ôçò äéêÞò ôïõò êáôáíüçóÞò, äçëáäÞ ìÝôñçóçò. ÁõôÞ åêäçëþíåôáé ùò ìßá ðñïäéÜèåóç åóôßáóçò ôçò ðáñáôÞñçóçò / ìÝôñçóçò óå óõãêåêñéìÝíá ìåãÝèç êáôçãïñéïðïßçóçò.
Åôóé, áðü ôï óýíïëï ôùí ðéèáíþí óõíáéóèçìÜôùí ðïõ ç êÜèå ìÝôñçóç êáôçãïñéïðïéçìÝíïõ ìåãÝèïõò èá Þãåéñå, êõñéáñ÷ïýí áõôÜ ðïõ ðñïêýðôïõí áðü ôéò ðéï ðñïðáãáíäéóìÝíåò êáôçãïñßåò, áõôÝò ðïõ õðïóôçñßæïíôáé áðü ôéò êõñßáñ÷åò ìíÞìåò. Ç óôÜóç áõôÞ åêäçëþíåôáé ôåëéêÜ ùò óõãêßíçóç.
Ç áðüêëéóç êáôáíüçóçò ðñïäáèÝôåé ôï ðüóï èÝëåé êáíÝíáò íá ôçí øÜîåé. Íá äéåñùôçèåß äçëáäÞ ãéá ôçí ïñèüôçôá êáé åðÜñêåéá ôùí êáôçãïñéïðïéÞóåþí ôïõ. Ôüôå Ý÷ïõìå ôï óõíåéäçôü íá ðñïâáßíåé óå áíáæÞôçóç. Ìðïñåß üìùò íá ìçí åðéæçôåßôáé êáôáíüçóç, äçëáäÞ íá ìçí õðÜñ÷åé áðüêëéóç êáôáíüçóçò. Ôüôå, äåí êõñéáñ÷åß ç áíáæÞôçóç áðü ôï óõíåéäçôü, áëëÜ ç åêäÞëùóç ôïõ õðïóõíåßäçôïõ âÜóåé ðñïäéÜèåóçò.
Ç áðüêëéóç êáôçãïñéïðïßçóçò ðñïäéáèÝôåé ôï ðùò èá áéóèáíèåß êáíåßò áðÝíáíôé óôï åñÝèéóìá. Ç åêäÞëùóç ôïõ õðïóõíåßäçôïõ, ðïõ êõñéáñ÷åß âÜóåé ôçò êáôçãïñéïðïßçóçò êáé ôùí óõó÷åôéóìÝíùí áíôáíáêëáóôéêþí, ôåßíåé íá ðñïôÜîåé áìõíôéêÞ Þ åðéèåôéêÞ, öïâéêÞ Þ åíèïõóéáóôéêÞ áíôßäñáóç óôï åñÝèéóìá. Èá êáèïñßóåé Ýôóé ôçí óõìðåñéöïñÜ, ðïõ ìå ôç óåéñÜ ôçò èá ñõèìßóåé ìåëëïíôéêïýò ãíùóôéêïýò êýêëïõò.
Åôóé, ç áðüêëéóç êáôáíüçóçò åêäçëþíåôáé êõñßùò óôç äéÜóôáóç ôçò óêÝøçò, åíþ ç áðüêëéóç êáôçãïñéïðïßçóçò óôç äéÜóôáóç ôçò äñÜóçò. Ïé êÜèå áðüêëéóç ìðïñåß íá ðñïêáëåß èåôéêÞ Þ áñíçôéêÞ áíôßäñáóç. Ïé äýï áðïêëßóåéò óõíåñãïýí Þ áíôáãùíßæïíôáé. ÄçëáäÞ ìðïñåß ç ìßá íá ðñïóðáèåß íá áíåâÜóåé ôçí Üëëç Þ íá ôçí ìåéþóåé. Ðáñáäåßãìáôá:
ÔÜóç ãéá øÜîéìï ìðïñåß íá óõíåñãåß ìå ôÜóç ãéá äñÜóç.
ÔÜóç óôï øÜîéìï äåí èÝëåé äñÜóç
ÔÜóç ãéá äñÜóç íá ìç èÝëåé øÜîéìï.
ÔÜóç ãéá äñÜóç íá èÝëåé øÜîéìï.
Áðþèçóç óôï øÜîéìï äåí èÝëåé äñÜóç
:Áðþèçóç óôï øÜîéìï èÝëåé äñÜóç
Áðþèçóç óôç äñÜóç èÝëåé øÜîéìï
Áðþèçóç óôç äñÜóç äå èÝëåé øÜîéìï.
Ôï øõ÷üóùìá åßíáé ôïðïèåôçìÝíï áðÝíáíôé óå Ýíá ðåñéâÜëëïí êáé äéáèÝôåé ìíÞìç. Ç ìíÞìç ìðïñåß íá áëëÜîåé êáôÜ ôç äéáäéêáóßá áíôßäñáóçò ôïõ øõ÷ïóþìáôïò ðñïò ôï ðåñéâÜëëïí.
Áò èåùñÞôïõìå ôï øõ÷üóùìá ùò Ýíá áõôüìáôï. Ç ìíÞìç ôïõ áõôïìÜôïõ ïñßæåé ôçí êáôÜóôáóÞ ôïõ. ÊÜèå ìåôáâëçôÞ êáôÜóôáóçò ðïõ åðçññåÜæåé êÜðïéá ðáñÜìåôñï áíôßäñáóçò (äçë. óõíéóôþóá ôçò óõíÜñôçóçò ìåôáöïñÜò ôïõ óõóôÞìáôïò) êáôáëáìâÜíåé êÜðïéá èÝóç ìíÞìçò.
ÌÝñïò ôçò óõíÜñôçóçò ìåôáöïñÜò ôïõ óõóôÞìáôïò åßíáé ôï óõíåéäçôü. Åßíáé ìÝñïò ôçò óõíÜñôçóçò ìåôáöïñÜò ãéáôß åðçññåÜæåé èÝóåéò ìíÞìçò, äçëáäÞ ôçí êáôÜóôáóç ôïõ áõôïìÜôïõ. Óêïðüò áõôïý ôïõ ðïíÞìáôïò åßíáé íá áíáëýóåé ôï óõíåéäçôü êáé ôï ñüëï ôïõ óôçí ðïñåßá óôç æùÞ ôïõ áõôïìÜôïõ.
Ôï øõ÷üóùìá åßíáé äõíáôüí íá áéóèáíèåß óõãêåêñéìÝíåò äéáôáñá÷Ýò ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò ÷ùñï÷ñüíïõ. Ìßá óõãêåêñéìÝíç äéáôáñá÷Þ ìðïñåß íá ãßíåé áíôéëçðôÞ ùò åñÝèéóìá, åÜí õðÜñ÷åé êáôÜëëçëç áßóèçóç ðñïò ôïýôï. Ìßá áßóèçóç ëïéðüí åßíáé óôçí ïõóßá Ýíá ößëôñï ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò ðïõ áíôáðïêñßíåôáé óå óõãêåêñéìÝíåò êáôçãïñßåò äéáôáñá÷þí.
Ôï åñÝèéóìá ðïõ ðñïêÜëåóå ôçí áßóèçóç åßíáé äõíáôüí íá áðáó÷ïëÞóåé ôï óõíåéäçôü Þ ü÷é. Äéåõêñéíßæïõìå ëïéðüí üôé ç, êáôÜ ôçí öõóéïëïãßá, “áßóèçóç” åßíáé óôçí ïõóßá Ýíáò ìç÷áíéóìüò ðïõ êáèéóôÜ äõíáôÞ ôçí åíåñãïðïßçóç ôïõ óõíåéäçôïý áðü óõãêåêñéìÝíçò êáôçãïñßáò äéáôáñá÷Þ ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò. Ï ìç÷áíéóìüò üìùò, üðùò èá äïýìå óôç óõíÝ÷åéá, äåí óçìáßíåé üôé ãéá ôï ßäéáò Ýíôáóçò åñÝèéóìá, èá åíåñãïðïéåßôáé ðÜíôïôå ßäéá åíôýðùóç óôï óõíåéäçôü.
Åí ðÜóåé ðåñéðôþóåé, ç Ýêèåóç ôïõ øõ÷ïóþìáôïò óôéò äéáôáñá÷Ýò ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò, üôáí ãßíåôáé áéóèçôÞ, äçëáäÞ áðáó÷ïëåß ôï óõíåéäçôü, ðñïêáëåß ðáñáôÞñçóç. Ç ðáñáôÞñçóç åßíáé ðñïóðÜèåéá ôïõ øõ÷ïóþìáôïò íá ìåôñÞóåé ôï åñÝèéóìá ðïõ Ýãéíå áéóèçôü. Ç ìÝôñçóç ãßíåôáé ìå ôç ÷ñÞóç ìíÞìçò.
Ìßá ìÝôñçóç ðñïóðáèåß íá äþóåé ôéìÞ óå Ýíá ìÝãåèïò. Ç óõíåéäçôÞ ðáñáôÞñçóç óõíßóôáôáé óôçí áíÜêëçóç, áðü ôçí ìíÞìç, äéáöüñùí åííïéþí ðïõ ïñßæïõí ôÝôïéá ìåãÝèç. Ãßíåôáé äçëáäÞ ç ìÝôñçóç âÜóåé êáôçãïñéþí ðïõ ôï óõíåéäçôü áíáãíùñßæåé ëüãù ìÜèçóçò.
ÁõôÞ ç óõëëïãÞ ìåôñÞóåùí ðïõ óõíèÝôåé ôçí ðáñáôÞñçóç, ãßíåôáé áíôéëçðôÞ ùò óõíáßóèçìá. Ôï óõíáßóèçìá åßíáé äçëáäÞ ç êáôáíüçóç ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò âÜóåé ìßáò óåéñÜò ìåãåèþí åìðåäùìÝíùí óôç ìíÞìç. Ç áëëéþò, ôï óõíáßóèçìá Ýñ÷åôáé ìå ôçí áíáãíþñéóç ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò.

[1]Èá ìðïñïýóáìå âÝâáé íá ìéëÞóïõìå ãéá ìßá åõñýôåñç êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò, óõíåéäçôÞ êáé áóýíåéäç, áëëÜ ç äåýôåñç èá Þôáí ôïõ øõ÷ïóþìáôïò, êáé èá Ýâãáéíå áðü ôçí äéêÞ ìáò ðñïóðÜèåéá êáôáíüçóçò ôïõ üëïõ óõóôÞìáôïò. Áò åììåßíïõìå ëïéðüí óôçí êáôçãïñéïðïßçóç ôïõ áíôéêåéìÝíïõ êáé ü÷é ôïõ ìåëåôçôÞ.

[2]Óå ðñïçãïýìåíï ðüíçìá ôáýôéóá ôçí ðáñáôÞñçóç ìå ôï óõíáßóèçìá. Äåí Ý÷ù ëüãï íá ìçí ôï êÜíù êáé åäþ, áí êáé ðñÝðåé íá äéåõêñéíéóôåß üôé ç ôáýôéóç áõôÞ åßíáé ìáèçìáôéêÞò öýóåùò êáé äåí õðïêñýðôåé éó÷õñéóìü üôé Ýôóé óôçí ðñáãìáôéêüôçôá óõìâáßíåé êáé âÜóåé åíäå÷ïìÝíùò õðáñ÷ïõóþí “åðßóçìùí” øõ÷ïëïãéêþí èåùñéþí.

[3]Ç ðñïçãïýìåíç áíÜëõóç ôïõ ìáæï÷éóìïý áíáöÝñåôáé óå Ýíá ðéü ðåñßðëïêï êáé óõíåéñìéêü (Üñá åêôåéíüìåíï óôï ÷ñüíï) öáéíüìåíï. Ç êáèåáõôÞ áíáãíþñéóç ôïõ ðüíïõ áðü Ýíá, ïðïéïäÞðïôå, ÷ôýðçìá ðáñáìÝíåé ó÷åäüí ìïíïäéÜóôáôç, áí êáé õðïêåéìåíéêÞ ùò ðñïò ôçí åíôýðùóç.
[4]Ôþñá âÝâáéá, ãéá ôïí ßäéï ëüãï ìðïñåß íá áðïññéöèåß êÜèå éäÝá óêÝøçò åðß ôïõ åñåèßóìáôïò êáé áõôü íá áðùèçèåß. Áõôü äåí åßìáé óßãïõñïò áí ìðïñåß íá èåùñçèåß Ýíá Þ ðåñéóóüôåñá âÞìáôá, öáíôÜæïìáé åîáñôÜôáé áðü ôï ðüóï áõôüìáôá Þ ìå ôçí ðáñåìâïëÞ õðïóõíåßäçôùí äéåñãáóéþí ãßíåôáé áõôÞ ç áðþèçóç.

Ï Üíèñùðïò âëÝðåé Ýíáí êþíï. Óôçí áêôßíá åßíáé ï ÷ñüíïò. Óôç óöáßñá åßíáé äéÜöïñåò ìíÞìåò. Ôï åìðñüò ìÝñïò ôïõ êþíïõ áðåéêïíßæåé ôï ìÝëëïí êáé ôï ðßóù ôï ðáñåëèüí.

Óôï ðáñüí, ôï øõ÷üóùìá Ý÷åé ìßá óåéñÜ ìíçìþí åêäçëïýìåíùí óôï óõíåéäçôü. Ç êÜèå ìíÞìç áöïñÜ ìßá êáôÜóôáóçò ôïõ áôüìïõ êáé ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò óå ìßá ÷ñïíéêÞ óôéãìÞ óôï ìÝëëïí Þ ôï ðáñåëèüí, äçëáäÞ óôïí ÷ñüíï.

Óôï ðáñüí, ôï øõ÷üóùìá åêäçëþíåé ìßá óåéñÜ óõãêéíÞóåùí ùò áðüññïéá ôçò åêäÞëùóçò ôùí ìíçìþí. Ïé óõãêéíÞóåéò åßíáé äéáóôÜóåéò Þ óõíáñôÞóåéò áõôþí, ôïõ ãíùóôéêïý ÷þñïõ, êáëýðôïõí äå Ýíáí õðï÷þñï ôïõ ãíùóôéêïý ÷þñïõ.

Óôï ðáñüí, ïé óõãêéíÞóåéò ôåßíïõí íá ôñïðïðïéÞóïõí ôçí óõíÜñôçóç äõíáìéêïý ôïõ åíôüò ôïõ êþíïõ ÷þñïõ.

Êáé ïýôù êáèåîÞò.

Åìöáíßæåôáé ëïéðüí Ýíáò êýêëïò ï ïðïßïò Ý÷åé äýï ðüëïõò: Åíá óçìåßï ôïõ ÷þïõ ìíçìþí óôïí ÷ñüíï êáé ìßá ðïëõäéÜóôáôç óõíÜñôçóç óõãêéíÞóåùí óôï ðáñüí. Áí óôï ðáñüí ïñßóïõìå Ýíáí ãíùóôéêü ÷þñï, ôüôå ç êáôÜóôáóç ôïõ áôüìïõ óôï ðáñüí åßíáé Ýíá óçìåéï ôïõ ÷þñïõ.

Óôïí Üîïíá üìùò ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ, ç èÝóç ôïõ ðáñüíôïò áëëÜæåé êáé ìáò öáßíåôáé íá áëëÜæåé ðñïò ôï ìÝëëïí. Åöüóïí ôïýôï óõìâáßíåé, ìðïñïýìå íá ðåñéãñÜøïõìå ôçí ãíùóôéêÞ åîÝëéîç ôïõ øõ÷ïóþìáôïò ùò ìßá ôñï÷éÜ óôïí ãíùóôéêü ÷þñï åðß ôïí ÷ñüíï. Ç ôñï÷éÜ áõôÞ ìðïñåß íá áíôéðáñáôåèåß ðñïò ìßáí Üëëç ôñï÷åéÜ, óôïí öáóéêü ÷þñï ôùí ìíçìþí.
Óõíáßóèçìá åßíáé ç áíáãíþñéóç
Ðïéüò åßíáé ï ÷þñïò åêåßíïò óôïí ïðïßï ç óõíÜñôçóç äõíáìéêïý ôïõ ÷þñïõ ôçò ìíÞìçò ãßíåôáé óçìåßï? ÅÜí Þôáí äéáêñéôü ôï ðåäßï èá ìðïñïýóå íá åßíáé ï öáóéêüò ÷þñïò. ÁëëÜ åäþ Ý÷ïõìå óõíå÷Þ ÷þñï, êáé Ýôóé ÷ñåéáæüìáóôå Ýíáí ÷þñï áðåßñùí äéáóôÜóåùí. Áò öáíôáóôïýìå üôé ôïí Ý÷ïõìå.

Å÷ïõìå ëïéðüí:
à åßíáé ï ãíùóôéêüò ÷þñïò. ÄéáóôÜóåéò ôïõ åßíáé ïé óõãêéíÞóåéò Þ êÜôé âáèýôåñï.
ã åßíáé ìßá óýíèåóç óõãêéíÞóåùí, óçìåßï ôïõ Ã.
Ìßá åêäÞëùóç ìíÞìçò ìðïñåß íá èåùñçèåß ùò ìßá ðåñéï÷Þ óôïí ÷þñï ðïõ Ý÷åé ôïí ÷ùñü÷ñïíï ùò õðï÷þñï êáé åðéðëÝïí Ý÷åé êáé ôïí Ã. Áñá ï ÷þñïò ôùí ìíçìþí åßíáé ç óýíèåóç ôïõ ÷ùñï÷ñüíïõ êáé ôïõ ãíùóôéêïý ÷þñïõ.
Ç åêäÞëùóç ìíÞìçò ìðïñåß íá èåùñçèåß ùò óçìåßï, êáé âáóéêÜ ôï êÝíôñï âÜñïõò ôçò ðåñéï÷Þò áõôÞò åÜí åðé÷åéñçèåß íá äéáêñéôïðïéçèåß ï ÷þñïò. Áõôü ìðïñåß íá ãßíåôáé ëüãù ôïõ óöÜëìáôïò Heizenberg.

Η Αίσθηση της Ροής του Χρόνου

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Η Αίσθηση της Ροής του Χρόνου

Υπάρχουν δύο μνήμες. Του παρελθόντος και αυτή του μέλλοντος. Μεταξύ των λειτουργιών των δύο μνημών δημιουργείται η αίσθηση της ροής του χρόνου.
Θεώρηση φυσιολογίας της συμπεριφοράς
Ονομάζουμε μνήμη τη δυνατότητα ανάκλησης μίας κατάστασης νοητής στο άτομο. Μνήμες του παρελθόντος εκδηλώνονται με την ανάκληση συμβάντων του παρελθόντος, ενώ αυτές του μέλλοντος εκδηλώνονται με την ανάκληση μίας προβολής του ατόμου στο μέλλον.

Ανά πάσα στιγμή το εγώ ή το υπερεγώ προκαλούν την ανάκληση διαφόρων μνημών του παρελθόντος. Αυτό γίνεται είτε δια των συνειρμών ή της φαντασίας, στα πλαίσια μίας διαδικασίας αναζήτησης είτε δια πρόκλησης, λόγω ανεξέλεγκτου γεγονότος του περιβάλλοντος (εξωτερικό ερέθισμα). Η ανάκληση αυτή συνοδεύεται από εκδήλωση συγκινήσεως, που οφείλεται στην αντανακλαστική έγερση συναισθημάτων λόγω μαθησιακού συσχετισμού. Ο συσχετισμός αυτός είναι επίσης μορφή μνήμης εμπεδούμενη σε κώδικα διασυνδεσιμότητας (connectivity).

Η διαδικασία, μέχρι αυτό το σημείο, αποτελεί φάση ενός επαναληπτικού μηχανισμού. Κατά τη φάση αυτή, γίνεται έγερση μνήμης του παρελθόντος σε δύο στάδια. Κατά το πρώτο, εκδηλώνεται μνήμη του παρελθόντος που συνειδητοποιείται ως συμβάν παρόμοιο με αυτό της αναζήτησης (φαντασίας ή συνειρμού) ή του εξωτερικού ερεθίσματος. Κατά το δεύτερο, αντανακλαστικά, εκδηλώνεται μνήμη του παρελθόντος που αφορά πλέγμα συναισθημάτων (δηλαδή συγκίνηση). Η παρελθοντική μνήμη εδώ συνίσταται στη συνδεσμολογία συσχετισμών (κυρίαρχο αντανακλαστικό). Τουτέστιν, το παρόν ερέθισμα προκαλεί συνειρμικά ανάκληση μνήμης συγκεκριμένου συμβάντος του παρελθόντος και αντανακλαστικά τις συγκινήσεις τις συνδεδεμένες με την ανάκληση.

Η παραπάνω φάση αφορά συγκεκριμένο σημείο του παρελθόντος χρόνου, το οποίο έχει συνεπώς συγκεκριμένη απόσταση από το παρόν. Εκδήλωση αυτής της φάσης του κύκλου έχει επίδραση στην παρούσα κατάσταση. Η εκδήλωση αυτή ποσοτικοποιείται ώς ένα μέρος της συνολικής αίσθησης της ροής του χρόνου, αυτής που αντιπαραβάλλεται προς το παρελθόν, δημιουργώντας την συνείδηση ενός συγκεκριμένου χρονικού διαστήματος. Εχει δε την περαιτέρω επίδραση της συνεπενέργειας της ηλικίας του ατόμου κατά τη διάρκεια του συμβάντος στη συνολική αντίδραση του ψυχοσώματος.

Κατά τη συμπληρωματική της άλλης φάση, εκδηλώνεται μνήμη του μέλλοντος. Το άτομο αντιλαμβάνεται τον εαυτό του σε μία μελλοντική κατάσταση, που προκύπτει ως πιθανή εξέλιξη της παρούσας κατάστασης βάσει περιστατικών παρόμοιων με αυτά που προκάλεσαν την εκδήλωση της παρελθοντικής μνήμης ή που συνειρμικά (περαιτέρω αναζήτηση) οδηγούν σε αυτήν. Η διαδικασία ομοίως προκαλεί  αντανακλαστικά εκδήλωση συγκινησιακής μνήμης όπως και κατά την πρώτη φάση.

Οπως και κατά την άλλη φάση, η μελλοντική μνήμη τοποθετείται χρονικά κάποια στιγμή στο μέλλον. Ομοίως εμφανίζεται εκδήλωση μελλοντικής ηλικίας και ομοίως εμφανίζεται ποσοτικός παράγων της συνολικής αίσθησης της ροής του χρόνου, αυτός που αντιπαραβάλλεται προς το μέλλον.

Η ολοκλήρωση του κύκλου πιθανώς καταλήγει σε περαιτέρω αναζήτηση (φαντασία), οπότε και η αναγκαία προσδρομή στη μάθηση του παρελθόντος θα προκαλέσει επανάληψη του κύκλου.

Κατά την πλήρη εκτέλεση του κύκλου εκδηλώθηκαν δύο ηλικίες μέσω παρελθοντικής και μελλοντικής μνήμης αντίστοιχα. Ο δε άνθρωπος αντιπαρεβλήθη τόσο προς μία χρονική απόσταση του παρελθόντος όσο και προς μία του μέλλοντος.

Η συγκινησιακή μνήμη που εκδηλώθηκε και στις δύο περιπτώσεις, έχει ως αποτέλεσμα την πρόκληση αντίδρασης. Η αντίδραση είναι προς την συγκίνηση που θα εμφανιστεί στις δύο περιπτώσεις που μνήσκονται στις δύο φάσεις. Η αντίδραση αυτή είναι θετική ή αρνητική. Εμφανιζονται οι εξής παράγοντες:
·      Απώθηση ή έλξη
·      Φόβος ή επιθυμία
·      Προσμονή ή αναμονή
·      Πίστη ή αποφορά
·      Ασφάλεια ή ανασφάλεια

Η συνισταμένη των αξόνων αυτών (ή άλλων εφόσον προταθεί άλλο μοντέλο χαρακτηρισμού αντιδράσεων) δημιουργεί δύο επιμέρους αντιλήψεις της ροής του χρόνου προκαλώντας αύξηση της αίσθησης της αντίστοιχης χρονικής αντιπαραβολής ανάλογη βαθμωτής συνάρτησης των τιμών των παραπάνω αξόνων. Η συνολική αίσθηση της ροής του χρόνου είναι η σύσταση των δύο επιμέρους αντιλήψεων ροής.
Βεβαίως, η συνάρτηση απαιτείται να είναι βαθμωτή εάν και εφόσον η αίσθηση της ροής του χρόνου είναι μονοδιάστατη.
Στη σημείο αυτό πρέπει να οριστεί η αίσθηση της ροής του χρόνου. Ας γίνει σαφές ότι με τον όροαίσθησηαναφερόμαστε τόσο σε αυτό που αποκαλείται αίσθηση στη φυσιολογία (δηλαδή την αντίληψη της αλλαγής στο αντικείμενο περιβάλλον) όσο και σε αυτό που αποκαλείται συναίσθημα, επίσης στη φυσιολογία (δηλαδή την συνείδηση που προκαλεί η πρόσληψη ερεθίσματος).
Θεωρούμε ότι υπάρχει στο περιβάλλον μορφή ερεθίσματος που απευθύνεται σε μία αίσθηση. Η μορφή ερεθίσματος είναι η ροή του χρόνου με την αίσθηση της οποίας την αντιλαμβανόμαστε. Της πρόκλησης της αίσθησης ακολουθεί το συναίσθημα το οποίο η αίσθηση αυτή εγείρει. Το συναίσθημα λοιπόν είναι αυτό που αναλύθηκε στο παραπάνω κείμενο.
Φαινόμενο της εκδήλωσης του συναισθήματος είναι και η εντύπωση της έντασης του αισθητικού ερεθίσματος. Υψηλή εντύπωση οδηγεί εκδήλωση συναισθήματος τέτοια που προκαλεί και έντονη αντίδραση του ατόμου στο συναίσθημα. ‘Η το ανάδρομο: αντίδραση του ατόμου στη ροή του χρόνου οδηγεί τελικώς σε υψηλή εντύπωση ποιοτικοποιούμενη σε συγκινήσεις (πλέγματα συναισθημάτων). Την εντύπωση.
Η εντύπωση  είναι το ζητούμενο βαθμωτό μέγεθος που προαναφέρθηκε. Η συνείδηση της εντύπωσης οδηγεί στον συσχετισμό (α) του χρονικού διαστήματος μεταξύ των συμβάντων δύο εκδηλώσεων μνήμης με (β) αντίδραση η οποία διαμορφώνεται με την εκδήλωση του συναισθήματος. Ως συνείδηση, οδηγεί και στην εκλογίκευση.

Υπολογιστική διατύπωση

Το παραπάνω φαινόμενο μπορεί να επεκταθεί ως εξής: Σε ένα χρονικό διάστημα, το άτομο είναι εκτεθειμένο σε έναν πληθυσμό από εκδηλώσεις μνήμης. Ορισμένες εξ αυτών είναι παρελθοντικές και ορισμένες μελλοντικές και αφορούν καταστάσεις ή προσλήψεις ερεθισμάτων. Οι υπόλοιπες είναι συγκινησιακές μνήμες, με άλλα λόγια μνήμες πλεγμάτων των συναισθημάτων.

Επί του συνολικού πληθυσμού εκδηλώσεων μνήμης εμπεδώνεται ένα δίκτυο συσχετισμών κάθε ακμή του οποίου υποδηλώνει συνειρμικό συσχετισμό. Οι ακμές φέρουν βάρος αντίστοιχο της κυριαρχίας του συγκεκριμένου συνειρμού κατά το χρονικό διάστημα.

Η μαθησιακή πορεία του αυτομάτου περιλαμβάνει δύο βασικές διεργασίες:
1.    Την αλλαγή του πληθυσμού των μνημών.
2.    Την αλλαγή των βαρών των συνειρμικών συνδέσεων.

Επί της μαθησιακής τροχιάς και κατάστασης του αυτομάτου μπορούν να οριστούν διάφορα ενδιαφέροντα μεγέθη:
1.    Το ολοκλήρωμα εμφάνισης ή παραμονής συγκεκριμένης εκδήλωσης μνήμης κατά τη διάρκεια συγκεκριμένου χρονικού διαστήματος/
2.    Την εμφάνιση φαύλων κύκλων ή άλλων μορφών περιοδικότητας.
3.    Την εμφάνιση σύγκλισης στην πορεία κάποιων πρωτογενών ή παράγωγων μεγεθών.

Το αυτόματο αυτοβαθμολογείται. Μείζον κριτήριο για την βαθμολόγηση είναι η σύνθεση του υποσυνόλου του πληθυσμού που αφορά τις συγκινησιακές μνήμες. Επιπλέον κριτήρια που συμμετέχουν με ποικίλο (και δυναμικά μεταβαλλόμενο) βάρος, είναι διάφορα παράγωγα μεγέθη που αφορούν τις αντιδράσεις, όπως αυτές παραπάνω ψιλοαναλύθηκαν, και την αίσθηση της ροής του χρόνου (ίσως αυτό επεκταθεί με ενέργεια, γνώση (confidence) ή άλλο ομόλογο μέγεθος).

Το αυτόματο διαθέτει επίσης προσαρμοστικό μηχανισμό αναζήτησης. Ο μηχανισμός αναζήτησης είναι πολυσχιδής και πολυδιάστατος και αφορά εν γένει τις αποφάσεις που παίρνει το αυτόματο όσον αφορά τα παρακάτω:
·      Την μεταβολή του πληθυσμού μνημών καταστάσεων (παρελθοντικές και μελλοντικές)
·      Τη βαθμολόγηση του συγκινησιακού πλέγματος
·      Την κατανομή βαρών σε πιθανοτικές μεταβάσεις κατάστασης
·      Το βαθμό επιμονής μέχρι να αλλάξει στρατηγική σε ένα θέμα

Ας δεχτούμε ότι ύπάρχει ένα σύνολο ανεξάρτητων μεταβλητών που μπορούν να ορίσουν πλήρως τον μηχανισμό αναζήτησης. Στην πραγματικότητα, το σύστημα πρέπει να αρχίσει να λειτουργεί έτσι. Στους αρχικούς γύρους, ο χρήστης ρυθμίζει αυτές τις παραμέτρους, θεωρώντας ότι είναι πραγματικά ανεξάρτητες.

Στην πορεία μπορεί να αναπτυχθεί ένα δίκτυο αλληλοσυσχετισμών των παραμέτρων αυτών. Με άλλα λόγια, το αυτόματο θα προβαίνει στις εξής υπερβάσεις:
1.    Θα ανακαλύπτει μία παράμετρο (ενώ πριν του την ρύθμιζαν εν αγνοία του)
2.    Προσπαθεί να ανακαλύψει συσχετισμό της παραμέτρου αυτής με την πορεία του
3.    Βρίσκει τρόπο να μετατρέψει τον μηχανισμό ρύθμισης αυτής της παραμέτρου καθιστώντας την εξαρτώμενη από δικές του (αναγνωρισμένες) μεταβλητές κατάστασης.

Ενας τρόπος να προσομοιωθεί / παρασταθεί αυτός ο μηχανισμός είναι το clustering. Ενας άλλος μπορεί να είναι metrics το πόσο μεταβάλλεται αυτή η παράμετρος. Με άλλα λόγια, ένα σύνολο πειραματικών γύρων αφήνει μία παράμετρο άθικτη. Αλλα metrics επαναληψιμότητας ή ανταμοιβής μπορεί να αποφασίσουν να δώσουν στην παράμετρο αυτή ευκαιρία πόσο να αλλάξει.

Η προσαρμοστικότητα του αυτομάτου στο επίπεδο αυτό μπορούμε να πούμε ότι διέπει σε βαθύτατο επίπεδο τον μηχανισμό μάθησης και καθορίζει τη στρατηγική του αυτομάτου.

Από την συνείδηση της εντύπωσης της ροής του χρόνου προκύπτει εκλογίκευση της ροής του χρόνου.